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Chapter 21 Oncology (Cancer Medicine)
Oncology (Cancer Medicine), Dr. T, EU
91
Biology
11/19/2011

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Term
Adjuvant
Definition

A substance, especially a drug, added to a prescription to assist in the action of the main ingredient. 

 

(AD-joo-vant)

Term
Adjuvant Therapy
Definition

Treatment of a disease with a substance, especially a drug, that enhances the main ingredient. 

For example, chemotherapy may be used as adjuvant therapy to radiaiton. 

Term
Anaplasia
Definition

A change in the structure and orientation of cells characterized by a loss of specialization and reversion to a more primitive form. 

 

(an-ah-PLAY-zee-ah)

Term
Antimetabolite
Definition

A class of antineoplastic drugs used to treat cancer. These drugs are most effective against rapidly growing tumors. 

 

(an-tih-meh-TAB-oh-light)

Term
Antineoplastic
Definition

Of or pertaining to a substance, procedure, or measure that prevents the proliferation of malignant cells. 

 

(an-tih-nee-oh-PLASS-tik)

Term
Benign
Definition

Noncancerous and therefor not an immediate threat, even though treatment eventually may be required for health or cosmetic reasons; not life threatening

 

(bee-NINE)

Term
Cancer
Definition
A neoplasm chracterized by the uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells that tend to invade surrounding tissue and to metastasize to distant body sites. 
Term
Carcinogen
Definition

A substance or agent that causes the development or increases the incidence of cancer. 

 

(kar-SIN-oh-jen)

Term
Carcinoma
Definition
A malignant neoplasm
Term
Carcinoma in situ (CIS)
Definition
a premalignant neoplasm that has not invaded the basement membrane but shows cytologic characteristics of cancer. 
Term
Chemotherapy
Definition
The use of chemical agents to destroy cancer cells on a selective bases. 
Term
Cytotoxic
Definition
Pertaining to being destructive to cells. 
Term
Dedifferentiation
Definition

A change in the structure and orientation of cells characterized by a loss of specialization and reversion to a more primitive form. 

 

(dee-diff-er-en-she-AY-shun)

Term
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Definition
A large nucleic acid molecule found principally in the chromosomes of the nucleus of a cell thatis the carrier of genetic information. 
Term
Differentiation
Definition
A process in development in which unspecialized cells or tissues are systemically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic pysical forms, physiologic functions, and chemical properties. 
Term
Encapsulated
Definition
Enclosed in fibrous or membranous sheaths. 
Term
Fractionation
Definition
In radiology, the division of the total dose of radiation into small doses administered at intervals in an effort to minimize tissue damage. 
Term
Hyperplasia
Definition

An increase in the number of cells of a body part ("excessive formation")

 

(high-per-PLAY-zee-ah)

Term
Infiltrative
Definition
Possessing the ability to invade or penetrate adjacent tissue. 
Term
Invasive
Definition
characterized by a tendency to spread, infiltrate, and intrude. 
Term
Ionizing Radiation
Definition
High-energy X-rays that can kill cells or retard their growth. 
Term
Linear Accelerator
Definition
An apparatus for accelerating charged subatomic particles used in radiotherapy, physics research, and the production of radionuclides. 
Term
Lumpectomy
Definition
Surgical removal of only the tumor and the immediate adjacent breast tissue; a method of treatment for breast cancer when detected in the early stage of the disease. 
Term
Malignant 
Definition
Tending to become worse and cause death
Term
Metastasis
Definition

The process by which tumor cells spread to distant parts of the body. 

 

(meh-TASS-tah-sis)

Term
Mixed-Tissue Tumor
Definition
A growth of more than one type of neoplastic tissue. 
Term
Modality
Definition

A method of application

(i.e., a treatment method)

Term
Morbidity
Definition
An illness or an abnormal condition or quality. 
Term
Neoplasm
Definition

Any abnormal growth of new tissue, benign or malignant. 

(NEE-oh-plazm)

Term
Oncogene
Definition

A gene in a virus that can cause a cell to become malignant. 

 

(ONG-koh-jeen)

Term
Oncogenesis
Definition

A formation of a tumor. 

 

(ong-koh-JEN-eh-sis)

Term
Oncologist
Definition
The physician who specializes in the study and treatment of neoplastic diseases, particuarly cancer. 
Term
Oncology
Definition

The medical specialty concerned with the study of malignancy. 

 

(ong-KOL-oh-jee)

Term
Papillary
Definition
Of or pertaining to a papilla (nipplelike projection)
Term
Papilloma
Definition
A benign epithelial neoplasm characterized by a branching or lobular tumor. 
Term
Pedunculated
Definition

Pertaining to a structure with a stalk. 

 

(peh-DUN-kyoo-LAY-ted)

Term
Protocol
Definition
A written plan or description of the steps to be taken in a particular situation, such as conducting research. 
Term
Radiation
Definition
The emission of energy, rays, or waves. 
Term
Radiocurable Tumor
Definition
Pertaining to the susceptibility of tumor cells to destruction by ionizing radiation. 
Term
Radioresistant Tumor
Definition
A tumor that resists the effects of radiation. 
Term
Radioresponsive Tumor
Definition
A tumor that reacts favorably to radiation. 
Term
Radiosensitive Tumor
Definition
A tumor capable of being changed by or reacting to radioactive emissions such as X-rays, alpha particles, or gamma rays. 
Term
Radiotherapy
Definition
The treatment of disease by using X-rays or gamma rays. 
Term
Relapse
Definition
To exhibit again the symptoms of a disease from which a patient appears to have recovered. 
Term
Remission
Definition
The partial or complete disapperance of the symptoms of a chromin or malignant disease. 
Term

Ribonucleic Acid

(RNA)

Definition
A nucleic acid found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells that transmits genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. 
Term
Sarcoma
Definition

A malignant neoplasm of the connective and supportive tissues of the body, usually first presenting as a painless swelling. 

 

(sar-KOM-ah)

Term
Scirrhous
Definition

Pertaining to a carcinoma with a hard structure. 

 

(SKIR-us)

Term
Sessile
Definition
Attached by a base rather than by a stalk or a peduncle. 
Term
Staging
Definition
The determinaiton of distinct phases or periods in teh course of a disease. 
Term
Stem Cell
Definition
A formative cells; a cell whose daughter cells may give rise to other cell types. 
Term
Tumor
Definition
A new growth of tissue characterized by progressive, uncontrolled proliferation (growth) of cells. The tumor may be localized or invasive benign or malignant. 
Term
Verrucous
Definition
rough; warty
Term
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Definition

A malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a slightly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center that becomes more obvious as teh tumor grows. As the depression enlarges, the tissue breaks down, crusts, and bleeds. 

 

Most common malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue, occurring most often on areas of the skin exposed to the sun. 

 

Basal cell carnomas rarely metastasize, but they to recur - especially those larger than 2 cm in diameter. 

Term

Breast Cancer 

(carcinoma of the breast)

Definition
A malignant tumor of the breast tissue. The most common type, ductal carcinoma, originates in the mammary ducts. 
Term
Bronchogenic Carcinoma
Definition

A malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi; lung cancer. 

 

usually assocaited with a history of cigarette smoking

 

Symptoms: sistent cough, blood-streaked sputum (hemoptysis), chest pain, and voice change. 

 

Low survival rate

 

Term
Cervical Carcinoma
Definition

A malignant tumor of the cervix. 

 

Human papilloma virus has a strong correlation to risk for cervical cancer. 

Term
Colorectal Cancer
Definition

The presence of a malignant neopalsm in the large intestine. 

Most neoplasms in the larege intestine are adenocarcinomas and at least 50% originate in teh rectum, causing bleeding and pain. 

Has been shown that history in family can cause increased risk

Term
Endometrial Carcinoma
Definition

Malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus; 

also known as adenocarcinoma of the uterus. 

 

Treatment invovles a total abdominal hysterectomy (removal of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries) followed by radiation

Term
Lymphoma
Definition
is a lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant, beginning with a painless enlarged lymph node(s) and progressing to anemia, weakness, fever, and weight loss.
Term
Kaposi's Sarcoma
Definition

Rare malignant lesions that begin as soft, purple-brown nodules or plaques on teh feet and gradually spread throughout the skin. 

 

Associated with AIDS, diabetes, and malignant lymphoma. 

Term
Malignant Melanoma
Definition

Malignant skin tumor originating from melanocytes in preexistin nevi (moles), frekcles, or skin with pigment; darkly pigmented cancerous tumor. 

 

These tumors have irregular surfaces and borders and variable colors and are generally located on teh trunk in men and on the legs in women. 

 

Diameter is usually >6mm (small lesions generlly form around the primary)

 

ABCDs of malignant melanoma:

Asymmetry - any pigmented lesion that has flat and elevated parts 

Borders - any leakage across the borders of brown pigment or irregular shaped margins are suspicious. 

Color - variations

Diameter - any lesions with the previous characteristics measuring more than 6 mm in diamter should be removed. 

Term
Neuroblastoma
Definition

A highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system. 

 

Usually most commonly occurs in teh adrenal medulla, with early metastasis spreading widely to the liver, lungs, lymph nodes, and bone. 

Term
Oral Leukoplakia
Definition

is a precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth.

 

These elevated, gray-white or yellow-white, leathery-surfaced lesions have clearly defined boarders.  

Term
Ovarian Carcinoma
Definition

A malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in women in their 50s.

 

Symptoms usually do not appear with ovarian cancer until the disease is well advanced.

 

 

Term
Pancreatic Cancer
Definition
A life-threatening primary malignant neoplasm typcially found in the head of the pancreas. 
Term

Prostatic Cancer

(carcinoma of the prostate)

Definition

Malignant growth within the prostate gland, creating pressure on the upper part of the urethra. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. 

 

Symptoms are usually not present in the early stages of cancer of the prostate. 

 

symptoms: need to urinate frequently; difficulty starting or stopping urine flow; inability to urinate; weak or interrupted flow of urine when urinating; pain or buring when urinating; pain or stiffness in the lower ack, hips, or thighs; painful ejaculation

 

 

Term
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Definition

A malignant tumor of the kidney, occuring in  adulthood

 

does not produce symptoms until latter stages of the disease. 

 

Most common symptom is painless hematuria with later development of flank pain and intermittent fever. 

Term
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Definition

A malignancy of the squamous cells of epithelial tissue, which is a much faster growing cancer than basal cell carcinoma and has a greater potential for metastasis if not treated. 

 

When it recurs, it can be highly invasive and present an increased risk of metastasis. 

Term

Testicular Cancer 

(carcinoma of the testes)

Definition

a malignant tumor of the testicle that appears as a painless lump in the testicle. 

 

rare and usually occurs in men under the age of 40

 

Early treatment is essential to complete recovery. 

Term

Thyroid Cancer 

(cancer of the thyroid gland)

Definition
Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland that leads to dysfunction of the gland and thus inadequate or excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone. 
Term
Intracranial Tumors
Definition

occur in any structural region of the brain and may be malignant or benign. They are classified as primary or secondary and are named according to the tissue from which they originate. 

 

Leads to progresive neurological dysfunctions. 

Term
Metastatic Intracranial Tumors
Definition

Tumors occurring as a result of metastasis from a primary site such as the lung or breast. 

 

comprises approximately 20 to 40% of intracranial tumors. 

Term
Primary intracranial Tumors
Definition

Tumors that arise from gliomas (malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue) or from the meninges are known as primary intracrianl tumors. 

 

Are classified according to the principal cell type, shape and size

Term

Glioblastoma multiforme

(Primary intracranial Tumors)

Definition

comprises approximately 20% of all intracranial tumors. they arise in the crebral hemisphere and are the most rapidly growing of the gliomas.

 

 

[Primary intracrianl tumors Tumors that arise from gliomas (malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue) or from teh meninges are known as primary intracrianl tumors.]

Term

Astrocytoma

[Primary intracrianl tumors]

Definition

comprises approximately10% of all intracranial tumors and is a slow growing primary tumor of astrocytes. 

These tend to invade surrounding structures and over time become more anaplastic. 

A highly malignant glioblasoma may develop within the tumor mass. 

 

[Primary intracrianl tumors, Tumors that arise from gliomas (malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue) or from teh meninges are known as primary intracrianl tumors.]

Term

Ependymomas

Primary Intracranial Tumor

Definition

comprise approximately 6% of all intracranial tumors. They commonly arise from the ependymomal cells that line the fourth ventricle wall and often extend into the spinal cord. An ependymoma occurs more commonly in children and adolescents and its usually encapsulated and benign

 

[Tumors that arise from gliomas (malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue) or from teh meninges are known as primary intracrianl tumors.]

Term

Oligodendrogliomas

Primary Intracranial Tumros

Definition

comprise approximately 5% of all intracranial tumors and are usually slow growing. At times, the oligodendrogliomas imitate the glioblastomas with rapid growth. 

occur most often in the frontal lobe

[Tumors that arise from gliomas (malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue) or from teh meninges are known as primary intracrianl tumors.]

Term

Medulloblastoma

[Primary Intracrinial Tumors]

Definition

comprises approximately 4% of all intracranial tumors. 

occurs most frequently in children between five and nine years of age. 

It affects more boys than girls and typically arises in teh cerebellum growing rapidly. 

The prognosis is poor

 

[Tumors that arise from gliomas (malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue) or from the meninges are known as primary intracrianl tumors.]

Term

Meningiomas 

 

[Primary Intracranial Tumors]

Definition

comprise approximately 15% of all intracranial tumors. They originate from the meninges, grow slowly, and are largely vascular. 

Largely occur in adults. 

 

[Tumors that arise from gliomas (malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue) or from teh meninges are known as primary intracrianl tumors.]

Term
Wilms' Tumor
Definition

A malignant tumor of the kidney occurring predominantely in childhood. 

 

Term
Chemotherapy
Definition

The use of cytotoxic drugs and chemicals to achieve a cure, decrease tumor size, provide relief of pain, or slow metastasis. 

 

often used in conjunction with surgery, radiation therapy, or immunotherapy. 

 

It destroys cells by disrupting the cell cycle in various phases of metabolism and reproduction. 

Also interfers with th emalignant cell's ability to synthesize needed chemicals and enzymes. 

 

Alkylating agents are non-phase specific and work by altering DNA synthesis and the cell's ability to replicate. 

Antimetabolites are a group of chemotherapy drugs that are phase specific and alter the cell's ability to replicate or copy the DNA, consequently preventing cell replication. 

Cytotic antibiotics are non-phase specific and act in several ways to damage the cell membrane and kill cells.(can damage cardiac muscle)

Plant alkalois: vinca alkaloids and etoposide

Vinca alkaloids are phase specific. Etoposide affects all phases of the cell cycle. 

Hormone and hormone antagonists, corticosteroids and prednisone, the main hormones used in cancer terapy are phase specific and alter cell function and growth. 

Term
Immunotherapy
Definition

Agents that are capable of changing the relationship between a tumor and the host are known as biologic response modifiers (BRMs). These agents are used to strengthen the individual's immune responses. 

 

Is only used to halt disease that is advanced and/or metastasizing. 

Term
Mohs Surgery
Definition

is an advanced treatment procedure for skin cancer. The cancerous tumor is removed in stages, the tissue is examined for evience of cancer, and additional tissue is removed until negative boundaries are confirmed. This proces allows the surgeon to excise the tumor, remove layers of tissue, and examine the frest tissue immediately. Only tissue conatining cancer is removed and th health tissue is kept intact. 

 

This procedure is repeated until negative boundaries are confirmed. 

Most often used to treat basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. 

Term
Radiation Therapy
Definition

The use of ionizing radiation to interrupt cellular growth. The goal of radiation therapy is to reach maximum tumor control wtih minimum normal tissue damage. 

 

 

Term
Surgery
Definition

In more than 90% of all caners, surgery is used for diagnosing and staging. In more than 60% of all cancers, surgery is the primary treatment. When feasible, the primary tumor is excised in its entirety. 

 

Excisional biopsies are used to remove the tumor and a portion of normal tissue, which provide a specimen for examination and diagnosis.  

Term

Incisional biopsies

(surgery)

Definition

 Are used to remove a piece of a tumor for examination and diagnosing.

In more than 90% of all caners, surgery is used for diagnosing and staging. In more than 60% of all cancers, surgery is the primary treatment. When feasible, the primary tumor is excised in its entirety. 

 

Term

Excisional Biopsies

(surgery)

Definition

Are used to remove the tumor and a portion of normal tissue, which provide a specimen for examination and diagnosis.  

 

In more than 90% of all caners, surgery is used for diagnosing and staging. In more than 60% of all cancers, surgery is the primary treatment. When feasible, the primary tumor is excised in its entirety. 

 


Term

En Bloc

(surgery)

Definition

An en bloc resection includes the removal of a tumor and a large area of surrounding tissue that contains lymph nodes. 

An example is a modiefied radical mastectomy. 

 

In more than 90% of all caners, surgery is used for diagnosing and staging. In more than 60% of all cancers, surgery is the primary treatment. When feasible, the primary tumor is excised in its entirety. 

 

Term

Fulguration

(surgery)

Definition

is the destruction of tissue with electric sparks, and electrocauterization is destruction of tissue by burning. 

 

In more than 90% of all caners, surgery is used for diagnosing and staging. In more than 60% of all cancers, surgery is the primary treatment. When feasible, the primary tumor is excised in its entirety. 

Term

Exenteration

(surgery)

Definition

is a wide resection that removes the organ of origin and surrounding tissue

 

In more than 90% of all caners, surgery is used for diagnosing and staging. In more than 60% of all cancers, surgery is the primary treatment. When feasible, the primary tumor is excised in its entirety.