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Chapter 1 book vocab A&P
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology BIOL 2404 vocab ch 1
141
Biology
09/14/2012

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Term
Modern Science
Definition
The belief that humans could understand forces that caused natural events lef to the development of:
Term
Anatomy
Definition
describes the form and organization of body parts
Term
Physiology
Definition
considers the functions of anatomial parts
Term
constructed
Definition
The function of a body part depends on the way it is _______.
Term
Matter
Definition
________ is composed of atoms
Term
Atoms
Definition
______ join to form molecules.
Term
Organelles
Definition
________ are built of groups of large molecules (macromolecules).
Term
Macromolecules
Definition
_________ is another term for large molecules.
Term
Cells
Definition
_____, which contain organelles, are the basic units of structure and function that form the body.
Term
Cells
Definition
______ contain organelles.
Term
tissues
Definition
Cells are organized into _______.
Term
Organs
Definition
Tissues are organized into ______.
Term
Organ systems
Definition
Organs that function closely together compose __________ _________.
Term
Organism
Definition
Organ systems constitute the _______.
Term
Atomic, Molecular, Cellular
Definition
Body parts can be described in terms of different levels of organization. The three levels of organization are: ________ level, ________ level, and ________ level.
Term
Complexity
Definition
Beginning at the atomic level, the levels of organization differ in _______ from one level to the next.
Term
Life
Definition
Characteristics of ____ are traits all organisms share.
Term
Characteristics of life
Definition
Movement, Responsiveness, Growth, Reproduction, Repiration, Digestion, Absorption, Circulation, Assimilation, and Excretion are all: __________ ___ _____.
Term
Movement
Definition
Characteristic of life "changing body position or moving internal parts."
Term
Responsiveness
Definition
sensing and reacting to internal or eternal changes (one of the characteristics of life)
Term
Growth
Definition
increasing size without changing shape (one of the characteristics of life)
Term
Reproduction
Definition
Producing offspring (one of the characteristics of life)
Term
Respiration
Definition
obtaining oxygen, using oxygen to release energy from foods, and removing gaseous wastes (one of the characteristics of life)
Term
Digestion
Definition
breaking down food substances into component nurtients that the itestie can absorb (one of the characteristics of life)
Term
Absorption
Definition
moving substances through membranes and into body fluids (one of the characteristics of life)
Term
Circulation
Definition
moving substances through the body in body fluids (one of the characteristics of life)
Term
Assimilation
Definition
changing substances into chemically different forms (one of the characteristics of life)
Term
Excretion
Definition

Removing body wastes

(one of the characteristics of life)

Term
Metabolism
Definition
Acquisition and use of energy constitute _________.
Term
Structures and Functions
Definition
The _________ and _________ of body parts maintain the life of the organism.
Term
Organisms
Definition
Water, food, oxygen, heat, and pressure are all requirements of ____________.
Term
Water
Definition
_______ is used in many metabolic processes, provides the environment for metabolic reactions, and transports substances. (one of the requirements of organisms)
Term
Food
Definition
______ supplies energy, raw materials for building new living matter, and chemicals necessary in vital reactions. (one of the requirements of organisms)
Term
Oxygen
Definition
______ releases energy from food materials. This energy drives metabolic reactions. (one of the requirements of organisms)
Term
Heat
Definition
____ is a product of metabolic reactions and helps govern that rates of these reactions. (one of the requirements of organisms)
Term
Pressure
Definition
______ is an application of force to something. In humans, atmospheric and hydrostatic pressures help breathing and blood movements, respectively. (One of the requirements of organisms)
Term
Homeostasis
Definition
Maintenance of a stable internal environent is called _________.
Term
Homeostatic
Definition
__________ mechanisms help regulate body temperature and blood pressure.
Term
Homeostatic
Definition
__________ mechanisms act through negative feedback.
Term
Axial
Definition
The _____ portion of the body includes the cranial cavity, the vertebral canal, the thoracic cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity.
Term
Diaphragm
Definition
The _________ separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
Term
Viscera
Definition
The organs in a body cavity are called ______.
Term
Mediastinum
Definition
The _________ separates the thoracic cavity into right and left compartments.
Term
Head
Definition
Body cavities in the ____ include the oral, nasal, orbital, and middle ear cavities.
Term
Pleural Membranes
Definition
______ membranes line the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura) and cover each lung (visceral pleura). (part of the Thoracic membranes)
Term
Pericardial membranes
Definition
_________ membranes surround the heart (parietal pericardium) and cover its surface (visceral pericardium). (part of the thoracic membranes)
Term
 Pleural and Pericardial
Definition
The _______ and ________ cavities are the potential spaces between the respective parietal and visceral membranes. (part of the thoracic membranes)
Term
Peritoneal membranes
Definition
________ membranes line the abdominopelvic cavity (parietal peritoneum) and cover the organs inside (visceral peritoneum).
Term
Peritoneal cavity
Definition
The ________ cavity is the potential space between the parietal and visceral membranes. (part of the abdominopelvic membranes)
Term
Organ; Interrelated
Definition
The human organism consists of several ____ systems. The systems make functions possible. The functions of the systems include the Body covering, Support and movement, Integration and coordination, Transport, Absorption and excretion, and reproduction. Each of these systems includes a set of _______ organs.
Term
Body covering
Definition
The ______ ________ is the organ system that protects underlying tissues, regulates body temperature, houses sensory receptors, and synthesizes various substances.
Term
Integumentary
Definition
Body covering is a ____________ system that includes the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.
Term
Skeletal
Definition
In the Support and movement group, the _________ system is composed of bones, as well as cartilages and ligaments that bind bones together.
Term
Skeletal system
Definition
The _______ system provides a framework, protective shields, and attachments for muscles. it also produces blood cells and stores inorganic salts. This system is part of support and movement.
Term
Muscular System
Definition
In the support and movement group, the ________ system includes the muscles of the body. It also moves body parts, maintains posture, and produces body heat.
Term
Support and Movement
Definition
The skeletal system and the muscular system are part of the ________ and ________ functions.
Term
Integration and Coordination
Definition
The nervous system and the Endocrine system are part of the _________ and __________ functions.
Term
Nervous System
Definition
The ______ system, a part of the integration and coordination functions, consists of the brain spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
Term
Nervous System
Definition
The _______ system recieves impulses from sensory parts, interprets these impulses, and acts on them by stimulating muscles or glands to respond.
Term
Endocrine system
Definition
The _________ system is needed for integration and coordination functions, and consists of glands that secrete hormones that help regulate metabolism.
Term
Metabolism
Definition
Hormones help regulate ________.
Term
Endocrine system
Definition
The _______ system includes the hypothalamus of the brain and the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as the pancreas, ovaries, testes pineal gland, and thymus.
Term
transport
Definition
The cardiovascular system and the Lymphatic system provide for the _______ function.
Term
Cardiovascular system
Definition
The _______ system includes the heart, which pumps blood, and the vessels, which carry blood to and from body parts.
Term
Blood
Definition
______ transports oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and wastes.
Term
Lymphatic system
Definition
The ________ system is composed of lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen.
Term
Lymphatic system
Definition

The ________ system transports lymph fluid from tissues to the bloodstream, carries certain fatty substances away from the digestive organs, and aids in defending the body against disease-causing agents.

 

Term
Absorption and Excretion
Definition
The digestive system, respiratory system, and the urinary system provides for the ______ and _______ function.
Term
Digestive System
Definition
The ________ system recieves foods, breaks down food molecules into nutrients that can pass through cell membranes, and eliminates materials that are not absorbed.
Term
Digestive system
Definition
The ______ system includes the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
Term
Organs
Definition
In the digestive system, some digestive organs produce _______.
Term
Respiratory system
Definition
The __________ system takes in and sends out air and exchanges gases between the air and blood. It includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Term
Urinary System
Definition
The ______ system includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. It filters wastes from the blood and helps maintain water and electrolyte concentrations and the acidity of the interal environment.
Term
Reproductive systems
Definition
The ________ systems produce new organisms.
Term
Male Reproductive system
Definition
The _____ Reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, and penis, with produce, maintain, and transport male sex cells (sperm cells).
Term
Female Reproductie system
Definition
The _____ reproductive system includes the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva, which produce, maintain, and transport female sex cells (oocytes).
Term
Relative positions
Definition
_______ positions are terms to describe the location of one part with respect to another part.
Term
Body
Definition
______ sections are places along which the body may be cut to observe the relative locations and organization of internal parts.
Term
regions
Definition
Body ______ are special terms designated to various body regions.
Term
Atoms
Definition
_____ assemble to form molecules.
Term
Chemicals
Definition
You need to understand basic chemistry because the human body is comprised of _______.
Term
water
Definition
Chemicals like ______ and oxygen are required for survival.
Term
Chemistry
Definition
Atoms assemble to form molecules. The study of these processes of assembly is known as ________.
Term
Physiology
Definition
To understand _______, you must understand chemistry.
Term
Matter
Definition
______ is anything that has weight and takes up space.
Term
Liquid
Definition
the three states of matter from most to least dense are solid, _____, and gas.
Term
Elements
Definition
The fundamental substances of matter are the ________
Term
Nitrogen
Definition
The 4 most common elements in the human body are _______, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen.
Term
Atom
Definition
_____ means indivisible and is the smallest unit of an element.
Term
Molecules
Definition
Atoms of elements combine to form _______.
Term
Function
Definition
Structures predict ______.
Term
Anatomy; Physiology
Definition
Structure is studied in ______ and function is studied in _______.
Term
Jointed; Grasp
Definition
A human hand is ______ which makes it easy to ______ objects.
Term
hollow
Definition
The chambers of the heart are _____ allowing them to pump blood.
Term
Rigid
Definition
The bones of the body are _____, which allows them to support you.
Term
Medial
Definition
The eyes are _______ to the ears.
Term
Contralateral
Definition
The left leg is ________ to the right leg.
Term
Ipsilateral
Definition
Any structure or organ on the same side of the body is considered _______.
Term
Posterior
Definition
The esophagus is ________ to the trachea.
Term
Bilateral
Definition
The Kidneys are ____.
Term
Inferior
Definition
The mouth is ______ to the nose.
Term
Distal
Definition
The toes are ______ to the ankle.
Term
Proximal
Definition

the elbow is ______ to the wrist.

 

Term
anterior
Definition
The esophagus is _______ to vertebral column.
Term
Superior
Definition
the heart is ______ to diaphragm.
Term
Superficial
Definition
the skin is _______ to all other body structures.
Term
Deep
Definition
The dermis is the ____ layer of the skin.
Term
Water
Definition
the interactions of the atoms involved in life processes or metabolim occur in _____.
Term
2; 1; gains
Definition
A water molecule has ____ hydrogen and ____ oxygen, which ____ electrons to fill their outer shells. this bonding created a charge or polarity to the water molecule.
Term
Polar
Definition
Polar molecule interact well with other polar molecules. Water therefore interacts well with other ____ molecules such as salts.
Term
dissociate
Definition
Salts will _____ or fall apart in water as the positive end of the hydrogens attracts the negative end of the salt and the negative end of the oxygen will attract the positive end of the salt.
Term
Ions; Electrolytes
Definition
dissociation of salts results in _____ or charged elements. this allows them to conduct electricity so they are known as _______.
Term
Acid
Definition
When the salt contains hydrogen ions and they are released in water the resulting solution is considered an _____.
Term
Base; Hydroxide
Definition
when the salt that dissociates provides ions that are able to capture hydrogen ions in the water it is considered a _____. The ion that usually captures hydrogen ions is a ________ ion.
Term
cranial cavity
Definition
The brain belonds in what cavity?
Term
Vertebral
Definition
The spinal cord belongs in the _____ cavity.
Term
Thoracic cavity
Definition
The Heart and Lungs belong in the ______ cavity.
Term
Abdominal Cavity
Definition

The liver, small intestines, spleen, and Uterus belong in which cavity?

 

Term
Pelvic cavity
Definition
The urinary bladder belongs in which cavity?
Term
Support & Movement
Definition
The muscular and skeletal systems are part of with function?
Term
Integration and Coordination
Definition
The Nervous and Endocrine system are part of which function?
Term
Body covering
Definition
The Integumentary system is part of which function?
Term
Absorption and excretion
Definition
The digestive, respiratory, and urinary system are part of which function?
Term
Transport
Definition
The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic systems are part of which function?
Term
Reproduction
Definition
The reproductive system is part of which function?
Term
Muscular
Definition
The muscles are part of which organ system?
Term
Skeletal
Definition
Bones are part of which organ system?
Term
Nervous
Definition
The Brain and Spinal cord are part of which organ system?
Term
Integumentary
Definition
The skin is part of which organ system?
Term
Digestive
Definition
The stomach and small intestine is part of which organ system?
Term
Respiratory
Definition
the lungs and trachea are part of which organ system?
Term
Urinary
Definition
the kidney and ureter are part of which organ system?
Term
Endocrine
Definition
The thyroid gland and pituitary gland are part of which organ system
Term
Cardiovascular
Definition
The heart and blood vessels are part of which organ system?
Term
Lymphatic
Definition
The spleen is part of which organ system?
Term
Reproductive
Definition
the ovaries are part of which organ system?
Term
Multiple organ systems
Definition
The pancreas is part of which organ system?
Term
Fibrous Joints
Definition

Which classification of joints do the following characteristics belong to?

-dense connective tissue

-no movement

-found in skull

Term
Cartilaginous Joints
Definition

Which classification of joints do the following characteristics belong to?

-small amount of movement

-cartilage joints bones

Term
synovial joints
Definition

Which classification of joints do the following characteristics belong to?

-ample movement allowed

-six subtypes

-most joints of the body are this

Term
Definition