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Chapter 19: The Endocrine System
The Endocrine System
33
Anatomy
10/16/2011

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Term
Hypothalamus
Definition
regulates the activities of the nervous and endocrine systems
Term
Pituitary gland
Definition
  • small, oval gland, size of a grape, inferior to hypothalamus
  • has both posterior and anterior lobes
Term
what hormones are released by the Posterior lobe of the Pituitary?
Definition
  • ADH: antidiuretic hormone which decreases water loss in kidneys and elevates blood pressure
  • Oxytocin: stimulates contractions of smooth muscle cells in the uterus and contractile cells surrounding mammary glands and contractions of the prostate gland
Term
What are the hormones of the anterior lobe of the Pituitary?
Definition
  1. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): targets thyroid and triggers release of thyroid hormones
  2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the release of hormones by adrenal gland specifically glucocorticoids (GC)
  3. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH): promotes the development of oocytes, secretion of estrogen, sperm production
  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH): induces ovulation in women and secretion of progestins that prepare the body for pregnancy and production of testosterone
  5. Growth hormone (GH): stimulates cell growth by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis; strong effect on skeletal and muscular development
  6. Prolactin (PRL): stimulates production of milk in mammary glands
  7. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): stimulates the melanocytes of the skin; secreted only during fetal development, pregnant women, and in some disease states
Term
What is the HPA axis?
Definition
hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal gland
Term
What are the big 3 hormones?
Definition
  • corticotrophin (CRH)
  • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  • glucocorticoid hormone- cortisol (CORT)
Term
What stimulates the HPA axis?
Definition
Stress, excitement
Term
What big 3 hormone does the hypothalamus release?
Definition
corticotrophin (CRH)
Term
Which of the big 3 hormones does the anterior pituitary release?
Definition
adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)
Term
Which of the big 3 hormones does the adrenal gland release?
Definition
glucocorticoid hormones, cortisol (CORT)
Term
Thyroid follicles
Definition
manufacture, store and secrete thyroid hormones
Term
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Definition
stimulates release of TSH which stimulates release of thyroxine
Term
Thyroxine
Definition
  • 90%  of all thyroid secretions
  • forms in thyroid
  • stored outside cells
  • increases BMR: cellular metabolism & oxygen consumption
Term
What hormone do C cells produce?
Definition
calcitonin (CT) which assists in the regulation of calcium ion concentration in body fluids
Term
Calcitonin
Definition
lowers calcium ion concentration by inhibiting osteoclasts and stimulating calcium ion excretion at the kidneys; opposed by parathyroid hormone
Term
Parathyroid glands
Definition
four pea-sized reddish brown glands on posterior surface of the thyroid gland
Term
What are the 2 types of cells in the parathyroid gland?
Definition
Principal cells/chief cells and immature or innactive principal cells
Term
Principal Cells
Definition
produce parathyroid hormone and monitor the circulating concentration of calcium ions
Term

Parathyroid Hormone

(Parathormone)

Definition

PTH

stimulates osteoclasts (BREAKDOWN), reduces urinary excretion of calcium ions, and stimulates production of calcitrol, a hormone that promotes absorbtion of calcium; Agonist of calcitonin

Term
Thymus
Definition
mass of connective tissue posterior to the sternum, decrease in size as we age
Term
Adrenal gland
Definition
yellow, triangular shaped gland on border of each kidney
Term
What two regions make up the adrenal gland?
Definition
  1. a superficial adrenal cortex
  2. an inner adrenal medulla
Term
Adrenal Cortex
Definition
produces adrenocortical steroids or corticosteroids
Term
What are the three zones of the Adrenal Cortex?
Definition
  1. Zona Glomerulosa
  2. Zona Fasciculata
  3. Zona Reticularis
Term
Zona Glomerulosa
Definition
outermost region, produces mineralocorticoids (MC) that affect electrolyte composition, REGULATES MINERALS
Term
Aldoseterone
Definition
main mineralcorticoid produced in the zona glomerulosa in the adrenal medulla; retains sodium ions and water 
Term
Zona Fasciculata
Definition
produces steroid hormones collectively known as glucocorticoids (GC) because of their effects on glucose metabolism
Term
Cortisol and Corticosterone
Definition
the most important glucocorticoids that speed the rates of glucose synthesis and glycogen formation
Term
Zona Reticularis
Definition
normally secretes small amounts of sex hormones
Term
Adrenal Medulla
Definition
secretes epinepherine (adrenaline) and norepinepherine (nonadrenaline); secretes roughly 3 times as much epinepherine as norepinepherine
Term
Dwarfism
Definition
caused by inadequate production of human growth hormone, genetic or disease
Term
How do they perform surgery on the pituitary gland?
Definition
through the nose
Term
Hyperthyroidism
Definition
Grave's disease, goiter by iodine deficiency