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Chapter 12 - Social Psychology
final prep
50
Psychology
05/15/2011

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Term
“Hal got hit by a car when he was jogging? Really? Well, it doesn't surprise me,” Erin commented. “He never wears reflective gear, so I bet the driver couldn't even see him.” Erin's response illustrates an attributional pattern called:

A)
diffusion of responsibility.

B)
ethnocentrism.

C)
the rule of reciprocity.

D)
blaming the victim.
Definition
D)
blaming the victim.
Term
Dylan is working with six other employees to produce a joint report. If he is typical of most people in individualistic cultures who are involved in a collective task, he is likely to:

A)
credit external, situational factors if the project is a success, and blame himself if the project fails.

B)
work much harder than if he were working on the project alone.

C)
experience an increase in ethnocentrism.

D)
expend less effort than if he were working on the task alone.
Definition
D)
expend less effort than if he were working on the task alone.
Term
_____ is to how we interpret the meaning of other people's behavior as _____ is to how our behavior is affected by situational factors and other people.

A)
Social facilitation; prosocial behavior

B)
In-group bias; out-group bias

C)
Social cognition; social influence

D)
Informational social influence; normative social influence
Definition
C)
Social cognition; social influence
Term

Nestor belongs to the cross-country ski club at his college but is not a member of the downhill ski club. In terms of basic social categories, Nestor's cross-country club members are the _____ and the members of the downhill ski club are the _____.

A)
social loafers; social facilitators

B)
in-group; out-group

C)
social facilitators; social loafers

D)
out-group; in-group
Definition
B)
in-group; out-group
Term

Social loafing refers to the:

A)
tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort.

B)
tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance.

C)
tendency to expend more effort on a task when it is a group effort.

D)
reduction of self-awareness and inhibitions when a person is part of a group whose members feel anonymous.
Definition

A)
tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort.
Term
Person perception follows some basic principles. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

A)
Your self-perception influences how you perceive others and how you act on your perceptions.

B)
Your goals in a particular situation determine the amount and kind of information you collect about others.

C)
Your reactions to others are not determined by your perceptions of them but rather by who or what they really are.

D)
In every situation you evaluate people partly in terms of how you expect them to act in that situation
Definition
C)
Your reactions to others are not determined by your perceptions of them but rather by who or what they really are
Term

The chapter Prologue describes how Fern labeled the man sitting on the steps with a cup in his hand as “homeless” on the basis of very limited information, which led her to make an embarrassing mistake. This is one disadvantage of using:

A)
social categories.

B)
social norms.

C)
deindividuation.

D)
social facilitation.
Definition
A)
social categories.
Term
The American social psychologist who is best known for his controversial series of studies investigating destructive obedience to an authority is:

A)
Solomon Asch.

B)
Bibb Latané.

C)
Stanley Milgram.

D)
Muzafer Sherif.
Definition

C)
Stanley Milgram.
Term
Dr. Krane studies questions such as why we conform to group norms, what compels us to obey authority figures, and the conditions under which people will help a stranger. Dr. Krane's research focuses on an area of social psychology called:

A)
social cognition.

B)
social perception.

C)
social influence.

D)
ethnocentrism.
Definition

C)
social influence.
Term
According to your textbook, _____ is an area of social psychology that studies the effect of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior.

A)
social influence

B)
social categorization

C)
social cognition

D)
social development
Definition
A)
social influence
Term
The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own, is called:

A)
altruism.

B)
deindividuation.

C)
attribution.

D)
prejudice.
Definition
C)
attribution.
Term

The performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status is called:

A)
conformity.

B)
obedience.

C)
deindividuation.

D)
social facilitation.
Definition
B)
obedience.
Term

In many collectivistic cultures individuals work harder when they are in groups than when they are alone. This phenomenon is called:

A)
social striving.

B)
the bystander effect.

C)
the modesty bias.

D)
social loafing.
Definition

A)
social striving.
Term
Mrs. Juarez divides her class into small, ethnically diverse groups. She then requires each student to become an “expert” in one aspect of an overall project and then teach it to other members of his or her group. Mrs. Juarez is using:

A)
the social facilitation technique.

B)
a technique that will probably lead to increased hostility and competitiveness between the groups.

C)
the jigsaw classroom technique.

D)
a persuasion technique called the rule of reciprocity.

Definition
C)
the jigsaw classroom technique
Term

The tendency to judge the behavior of the members of your group more favorably than the behavior of members of other groups is called:

A)
the actor-observer discrepancy.

B)
the just-world hypothesis.

C)
the out-group homogeneity effect.

D)
in-group bias.
Definition
D)
in-group bias.
Term
Sylvester was thrilled when he received a large bonus from his company. Later that day, when he was asked if he could volunteer a few hours to help at the Food Bank, he readily agreed. This example best illustrates the:

A)
“feel-good, do-good” effect.

B)
bystander effect.

C)
self-serving bias.

D)
actor-observer discrepancy.
Definition
A)
“feel-good, do-good” effect.
Term
In order to earn his “Community Service” badge as a Boy Scout, young Miguel is a weekend volunteer in the “Up With Trees” program. Miguel's behavior in this situation is an example of:

A)
deindividuation.

B)
altruism.

C)
prosocial behavior.

D)
the bystander effect.
Definition

C)
prosocial behavior.
Term
A(n) _____ is a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way that may be either positive, negative, or ambivalent.

A)
attribution

B)
attitude

C)
self-effacing bias

D)
prosocial behavior
Definition
B)
attitude
Term
According to the textbook, what helped John Gacy escape detection as a ruthless murderer for so many years?

A)
People tended to blame the victims rather than the person who murdered them.

B)
Rather than blame a specific person, people tended to blame society for the killings.

C)
People in the community tended to engage in out-group bias to explain the murders.

D)
Gacy's behavior in many situations contradicted the implicit personality theory that people have for a mass murderer.
Definition

D)
Gacy's behavior in many situations contradicted the implicit personality theory that people have for a mass murderer.
Term
In Milgram's original obedience study, what was the voltage level at which some participants first refused to continue shocking the learner?

A)
At the 45-volt level, the level at which the “sample” shock was given to the teacher.

B)
At the 150-volt level, which was labeled “Moderate Shock.”

C)
At the 315-volt level, which was labeled “Extreme Intensity Shock.”

D)
At the 420-volt level, which was labeled “Danger: Severe Shock.”
Definition
C)
At the 315-volt level, which was labeled “Extreme Intensity Shock.”
Term
Psychologist Cheryl Kaiser and her colleagues looked at how people with a strong belief in a just world psychologically resolved the fact that thousands of innocent people died in the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. Kaiser found that people with a strong belief in a just world advocated _____ those who committed the injustices because doing so would _____.

A)
forgiveness of; restore trust and faith in human nature

B)
revenge against; ensure that they got what they deserved and restore justice

C)
understanding of; minimize ethnocentrism and promote a global worldview

D)
recognizing; acknowledge diverse worldviews and restore fairness
Definition

B)
revenge against; ensure that they got what they deserved and restore justice
Term
.
Professional persuaders use a number of techniques to influence attitudes and behaviors. Which of the following is NOT one of those techniques?

A)
the door-in-the-face technique

B)
the foot-in-the-door technique

C)
the foot-in-the-mouth technique

D)
the that's-not-all technique
Definition
C)
the foot-in-the-mouth technique
Term
Muzafer Sherif helped clarify the conditions that produce intergroup _____ and _____.

A)
bystander apathy; diffusion of responsibility

B)
social facilitation; social loafing

C)
conflict; harmony

D)
obedience; conformity
Definition

C)
conflict; harmony
Term

In a series of experiments, Stanley Milgram systematically varied the conditions of his obedience study. Under which of the following conditions were subjects LEAST likely to continue administering shocks to the full 450-volt level?

A)
when the teacher and the learner were in the same room

B)
when the experimenter left the laboratory and gave orders over the phone

C)
when the teacher was required to hold the learner's hand down on a shock plate

D)
when the teacher observed two other teachers who refused to continue with the experiment
Definition

D)
when the teacher observed two other teachers who refused to continue with the experiment
Term
.
The Stanford Prison Experiment:

A)
was conducted at Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad, Iraq, by Stanford professor Philip Zimbardo, using American soldiers and Iraqi prisoners as research subjects.

B)
used a simulated electric shock machine to demonstrate the people's willingness to obey an authority figure.

C)
refers to a Stanford University program that trained Army soldiers and members of the National Guard in military interrogation techniques.

D)
involved Stanford University students playing the roles of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison.
Definition
D)
involved Stanford University students playing the roles of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison.
Term

The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance is called:

A)
social facilitation.

B)
social loafing.

C)
the self-serving effect.

D)
the bystander effect.
Definition

A)
social facilitation.
Term
During a discussion about junk food with her two adolescent children, Mrs. Kozena made it very clear that she thought junk food was disgusting and that it upset her to see her children eat it. Mrs. Kozena's negative feeling about junk food best illustrates the _____ component of attitudes.

A)
behavioral

B)
cognitive

C)
emotional

D)
prosocial
Definition

C)
emotional
Term
How long did the Stanford Prison Experiment last before the situation became “out of control”?

A)
six months

B)
six days

C)
six weeks

D)
sixteen weeks
Definition
B)
six days
Term
During Nick's first trip abroad he was surprised to find that people in other cultures ate such foods as snails, squid, insects, lizards, earthworms, seaweed, and rotten-looking cheeses. “One day they will become civilized like us and eat normal foods like Krispy Kreme donuts, pizza, hot dogs, and hamburgers and cheese fries,” he wrote to his parents. Nick's remarks illustrate a form of in-group bias called:

A)
the actor-observer discrepancy.

B)
ethnocentrism.

C)
the bystander effect.

D)
informational social influence.
Definition

B)
ethnocentrism.
Term
The branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations is called:

A)
cognitive psychology.

B)
personality psychology.

C)
developmental psychology.

D)
social psychology.
Definition

D)
social psychology.
Term
The term social facilitation refers to:

A)
the tendency for individuals in collectivistic cultures to work harder on a collective task than when working alone.

B)
the tendency in individualistic cultures to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort.

C)
the tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance.

D)
the tendency to help other people with no expectations of personal reward or benefit.
Definition
C)
the tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance.
Term
In which of the following scenarios is the person MOST likely to be helped by other people?

A)
At a moderately crowded Greyhound bus station, a woman struggles to retrieve her suitcase from a man who shouts at her, “Do you understand? You're not leaving!”

B)
Just moments after hundreds of people get off a crowded subway train on their way to work, an oddly dressed man in the crowd stumbles and falls as he is walking up the exit steps.

C)
Carla's car won't restart and partially blocks the exit drive as her fellow employees are walking to their own cars.

D)
As the impatient crowd surges forward to enter the stadium in the race for the best possible seats for the concert, a man in the crowd yells, “Wait! Stop! I dropped my contact lens!”
Definition
C)
Carla's car won't restart and partially blocks the exit drive as her fellow employees are walking to their own cars.
Term
In Milgram's original obedience experiment, subjects who were assigned the role of “teacher”:

A)
were deceived about the real role of the learner and the level of shock that he actually received.

B)
were told to stop whenever they felt the slightest discomfort about what they were doing.

C)
seemed to enjoy shocking the learner, especially at the higher voltage levels.

D)
quickly figured out the learner was not really getting shocked.
Definition
A)
were deceived about the real role of the learner and the level of shock that he actually received.
Term
The bus is fairly crowded when you get on. You quickly decide to sit next to a well-dressed senior citizen because you think that he'll probably leave you alone. This example illustrates the process of:

A)
social facilitation.

B)
social loafing.

C)
deindividuation.

D)
person perception.
Definition
D)
person perception.

Term

_____ refers to the phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers.

A)
The rule of reciprocity

B)
The actor-observer discrepancy

C)
The fundamental attribution error

D)
Diffusion of responsibility
Definition

D)
Diffusion of responsibility
Term

When Yoshiko's hard work and ability landed a big contract for her company, she would not accept the credit, insisting it was pure luck. When she failed to get the contract in another situation, however, she said it was her fault for not trying hard enough. This example illustrates:

A)
the rule of commitment.

B)
the just-world hypothesis.

C)
the self-serving bias.

D)
the self-effacing, or modesty, bias.

Definition
D)
the self-effacing, or modesty, bias.
Term
Physical attractiveness is:

A)
highly correlated with intelligence, mental health, and self-esteem.

B)
moderately correlated with intelligence, mental health, and self-esteem.

C)
highly correlated with social competence, assertiveness, and intelligence.

D)
not correlated with intelligence, mental health, or self-esteem.
Definition
D)
not correlated with intelligence, mental health, or self-esteem.
Term
The self-serving bias is to _____ as the self-effacing bias is to _____.

A)
the fundamental attribution error; blaming the victim

B)
blaming failure on internal, personal factors; blaming failure on situational factors

C)
the rule of reciprocity; the rule of commitment

D)
blaming failure on situational factors; blaming failure on internal, personal factors
Definition
D)
blaming failure on situational factors; blaming failure on internal, personal factors
Term
During Stanley Milgram's original obedience study, most of the subjects:

A)
showed virtually no emotions or feelings while shocking the learner.

B)
quickly figured out that the experimental situation was bogus and that the learner was not really getting shocked.

C)
showed extreme tension and conflict as they continued to shock the learner.

D)
refused to obey the experimenter beyond the 150-volt level.
Definition
C)
showed extreme tension and conflict as they continued to shock the learner.
Term
The Focus on Neuroscience box described an fMRI study in which participants were scanned while looking at photographs of different faces. What were the results of the study?

A)
Limbic system brain structures associated with emotion were activated when participants viewed faces of people who were of a different race than themselves.

B)
Faces of attractive, happy children evoked greater activation in the right hemisphere in female participants than in male participants.

C)
Faces of attractive people looking directly at the viewer activated the ventral striatum, a brain area associated with the expectation of rewards.

D)
The hypothalamus, a brain area associated with sexuality, was activated when participants viewed the face of an attractive person of the opposite sex.
Definition
C)
Faces of attractive people looking directly at the viewer activated the ventral striatum, a brain area associated with the expectation of rewards.
Term

According to the discussion in your text, which of the following is TRUE about the effect of attitudes on behavior?

A)
Attitudes do influence behavior in many instances.

B)
There is no correlation between attitudes and behavior.

C)
Attitudes rarely, if ever, influence behavior.

D)
Attitudes are most likely to influence behavior under conditions of social facilitation.
Definition
A)
Attitudes do influence behavior in many instances.
Term
When Catherine decided to major in engineering her parents thought she should reconsider her decision because engineering majors are “logical, analytical, conservative, aggressive, and always male.” Her parents' view that all engineering majors are similar illustrates:

A)
deindividuation.

B)
ethnocentrism.

C)
the out-group homogeneity effect.

D)
the fundamental attribution error.
Definition
C)
the out-group homogeneity effect.
Term

Of the following factors, which is NOT one that will make you more likely to conform to the group's norms?

A)
You have already expressed commitment to a different idea or opinion.

B)
You are strongly attracted to the group and want to be a member of it.

C)
You are facing a unanimous majority of four or five people.

D)
You must give your response in front of the group.
Definition
A)
You have already expressed commitment to a different idea or opinion.
Term

Research has found that physically attractive people tend to:

A)
be more intelligent.

B)
have better mental health.

C)
be less anxious in social situations.

D)
have much higher than average levels of self-esteem.
Definition

C)
be less anxious in social situations.
Term
When Raphael was in the elevator, he couldn't help but notice a man and a woman in conversation. He decided that the woman in the suit was probably a college administrator and the gray-haired man in the glasses was probably a professor. Raphael was engaged in the process of:

A)
deindividuation.

B)
the fundamental attribution error.

C)
the bystander effect.

D)
social categorization.
Definition

D)
social categorization.
Term

_____ is any behavior that helps another person, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless.

A)
Deindividuation

B)
Prosocial behavior

C)
Altruism

D)
Ethnocentrism
Definition
B)
Prosocial behavior
Term
The social psychologist who is best known for his Robbers Cave experiments and his study of prejudice, conflict resolution, and group processes is:

A)
Stanley Milgram.

B)
Solomon Asch.

C)
Muzafer Sherif.

D)
Bibb Latané.
Definition
C)
Muzafer Sherif.
Term
Pamela observes that people don't sit next to strangers on the subway when there are empty seats available. She notices this also happens on the bus, in the movie theater, and in the cafeteria. Pamela's observations suggest that people's behavior in these situations is governed by:

A)
social norms.

B)
stereotypes.

C)
prejudice.

D)
social facilitation.
Definition
A)
social norms.
Term
When the subjects of Milgram's obedience experiments completed a follow-up questionnaire, Milgram found that:

A)
most of the subjects continued to be psychologically traumatized long after they had participated in the experiment.

B)
approximately half of his subjects felt extremely angry and resentful for having been deceived.

C)
most still had not figured out that the experiment had involved the deception of shocking the learner.

D)
most said they were glad to have participated in the experiment.
Definition
D)
most said they were glad to have participated in the experiment.
Term
_____ refers to the mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of others.

A)
Person perception

B)
Social facilitation

C)
Social influence

D)
The bystander effect
Definition

A)
Person perception