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Chapter.1
Intro. to Criminology Final Exam Study Guide
44
Criminology
12/05/2012

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Term
When defining crime, which of the following is not one of the definitional perspectives found in contemporary criminology?
Definition
Environmental
Term
"Human conduct that is in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws" is a definition of
Definition
crime
Term
The legalistic approach would suggest that crime is socially relative in the sense that it is created by
Definition
legislative activity
Term
Which of the following is not a problem with the legislative perspective?
Definition
They are all problems with the legislative perspective
Term
In a __________ state, an individual may be prosecuted for violating traditional notions of right and wrong, even though no violation of written law occurred.
Definition
common law
Term
According to John F. Galliher, legal definitions of criminality are arrived at through a __________ process.
Definition
political
Term
The belief that crime is the result of criteria that have been built into the law by powerful groups is the basis of the __________ perspective on crime.
Definition
political
Term
The belief that crime is an antisocial act of such a nature that repression is necessary to preserve the existing system of society is the basis of the __________ perspective on crime.
Definition
sociological
Term
Ron Classen sees crime primarily as
Definition
an offense against human relationships
Term
The psychological perspective sees crime primarily as
Definition
problem behavior
Term
Which of the following statements about deviance and crime is/are true?
Definition
Deviant behavior and criminal behavior overlap
Term
Because you were late for this exam, you exceeded the speed limit by about 10 to 15 miles per hour while driving to class. This is an example of behavior that is
Definition
criminal but not deviant
Term
The pluralistic perspective suggests that behaviors are typically criminalized through
Definition
a political process
Term
The gun control debate is an example of the __________ perspective.
Definition
pluralistic
Term
One who studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior is called a
Definition
criminologist
Term
The official publication of the American Society of Criminology is
Definition
Criminology
Term
Which of the following jobs probably would not fall within the field of criminalistics?
Definition
Correctional officer
Term
A police officer or probation officer is best described as a
Definition
criminal justice professional
Term
An academic or research criminologist generally holds a __________ degree.
Definition
doctoral
Term
Criminologists work for
Definition
ALL THE ABOVE
Term
The number of personnel employed by private security agencies today is __________ that of public law enforcement agencies.
Definition
twice
Term
The __________ definition of criminology literally defines the term as the study of crime.
Definition
linguistic
Term
Which of the following is a disciplinary definition of criminology?
Definition
Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding the social problem of crime
Term
Which of the following is not one of the three principal divisions of criminology proposed by Edwin Sutherland?
Definition
The study of the criminal justice system
Term
__________ definitions focus on criminology's role in uncovering the underlying causes of crime.
Definition
Causative
Term
The field of study that is concerned primarily with the causes and consequences of crime is
Definition
criminology
Term
Criminology is
Definition
ALL THE ABOVE
Term
Criminal justice emphasizes
Definition
BOTH A AND B
Term
A(n) __________ theory of crime is one that attempts to explain all or most forms of criminal conduct through a single, overarching approach.
Definition
general
Term
A(n) __________ theory does not necessarily attempt to explain all criminality.
Definition
integrated
Term
According to various professional groups, violence in television, music, video games, and movies
Definition
may lead to increased levels of violent behavior among children
Term
According to a recent Gallup poll, the majority of respondents believed that crime in the United States is
Definition
more prevalent than it was a year ago
Term
The social problems perspective holds that crime is
Definition
a manifestation of underlying social problems
Term
Which of the following crime reduction or prevention strategies is most characteristic of the social problems perspective?
Definition
A government-funded initiative to enhance educational opportunities among low-income individuals
Term
Which of the following statements about the social problems perspective is not true?
Definition
It emphasizes crime prevention efforts such as harsher sentences and the development of rehabilitation programs
Term
The social responsibility perspective is affiliated with __________ theory.
Definition
rational choice
Term
Which of the following recent developments in national crime control policy was not substantially influenced by the social responsibility perspective?
Definition
The development of the Job Corps to reduce unemployment by encouraging the development of job skills
Term
The more immediate propensities and predispositions of the actors involved in the crime are known as
Definition
inputs
Term
Which of the following is not a foreground contribution by an offender?
Definition
A peculiar biology
Term
The __________ contributes to the criminal event by failing to prevent criminal activity.
Definition
criminal justice system
Term
Which of the following is not an immediate input provided by the justice system that may enhance or reduce the likelihood of criminal occurrences?
Definition
A prison that acts as a crime school
Term
A victim may actively contribute to his/her own victimization through the appearance of
Definition
defenselessness
Term
_________ is the process by which one acquires the cultural values of one's society.
Definition
Socialization
Term
A large number of modern criminological theories fall within the framework of _________ theory.
Definition
sociological