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Ch. 7 Bone Tissue
N/A
30
Anatomy
11/03/2010

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Term
components of skeletal system
Definition
bones
cartilage
ligaments
Term
functions of skeletal system
Definition
support
protection
movement
electrolyte balance
acid-base balance
blood formation
Term
osseous/bone tissue
Definition
connective tissue that has a hardened matrix throgh calcium phosphate deposists
Term
calcification/mineralization
Definition
hardening process of bone matrix
Term
long bones
Definition
longer than wide
humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, tibia and fibula, metatarsals and phalanges
Term
short bones
Definition
equal in length and width
carpal(wrist)
tarsal(ankle)
limited motion, merely glide
Term
flat
Definition
enclose and protect organs and provide broad surfaces for muscle attachment
most cranial bones
ribs
sternum
scapula
hip bones
Term
irregular bones
Definition
elaborate shapes
vertebrae
skull bone (like sphenoid and ethmoid)
Term
compact(dense bone
Definition
outer shell of dense white osseous tissue
Term
medullary cavity/marrow cavity
Definition
hollow space in middle of bone that contains bone marrow
Term
spongy(cancellous bone)
Definition
losely organized form of osseous tissue
Term
diaphysis
Definition
the shaft of the long bone
Term
ephiphysis
Definition
expanded head at the ends of the diaphysis
Term
articular cartilage
Definition
layer of hyaline cartilage on joint surfaces that helps to enable joint movement
Term
nutrient foramina
Definition
minute holes in the bone through which blood vessels penetrate
Term
periosteum
Definition
outer sheath covering bone
two layers
1. tough, outer fibrous layer made of collage --> some collage fibers of outer layer are continous with tenons that bind muscle to bone adn some penetrate in the bone matrix as perforating (sharpey fibers)
2. iner, osteogenic layer of bone-forming cells
Term
perforating/sharpey fibers
Definition
collagen fibers of the outer layer that are continous with tendons that bind muscle to bone and that penetrate into the bone matrix
Term
endosteum
Definition
thin layer of reticular connective tissue with cells that dissolve osseous tissue and others that deposit it
Term
epiphyseal plate
Definition
hyaline cartilage that separates the marrow spaces of the epiphysis and the diaphysis
in xrays, appears as a transparent line at end oflong bone
zone where bones grow in length
in adults, epiphyseal plate is depleted and bone cant grow anymore--> epiphyseal line is where the plate used to be
Term
flate bone composition
Definition
sandwich-like
two layers of compact dense bone with a middle layer of spongy bone
spongy layer in cranium is called diploe
both surfaces of flat bone covered with periosteum, and marrow spaces in spongy bone are lined with endosteum
Term
4 principal bone cells
Definition
1. osteogenic
2. osteoblasts
3. osteocytes
4. osteoclasts
Term
osteogenic(osteoprogenitor)cells
Definition
stem cells thatcome from emryonic mesenchymal cells
give rise to other bone cell types
found in endosteum, inner layer of perosteum, central canals
multiply continually and some become osteoblasts
Term
osteoblasts
Definition
bone-forming cells
roughly cuboidal or angular and line up in single layer on bone surface under endosteum and periosteum
nonmitotic--> only way to create new osteoblasts is through the differentiation of osteogenic cells
synthesize soft organic matter of bone matrix
secrete osteocalcin hormone (found to stimulate insulin secretion by pancreas, increase insulin sensitivity in adipose tisue, and limit adipose tissue groth)
Term
osteocytes
Definition
former osteoblasts that become trapped in the matrix they deposited
reside in lacunae
has cytoplasmic processes that reach into canaliculi to contact the processes from neighboring osteocytes, some can even contact osteoblasts on bone surface
osteocytes are connected by gap juctions so they can pass nutrients and chemical signals to one another and pass their metabolic wastes to the nearest blood vessel for disposal
multiple functions:
resorb and deposit bone matrix (thus helping maintain balance of bone density and blood calcium and phosphate ion concentrations), and strain sensors (pressure on bone can produce flow in extracellular fluid of lacunai and canaliculi, thus stimulating osteocytes to secrete biochemical signals that can regulate bone remodeling--> bone shape and density adaptation to stress)
Term
osteoclasts
Definition
bone-dissolving cells found on bone surface
develop from same bone marrow stem cells that give rise to blood cells, so NOT FROM OSTEOGENIC CELLS
formed by fusion of stem cells, so they are very large and can be visible to naked eye
have 3 or 4 nuclei, but sometimes up to 50
side of the osteoclast facing bone surface has ruffled border with many dep infoldings to increase surf. area and enhance efficiency of bone resorption
can reside in pits called resorption bays(howship lacunae)
Term
osseous tissue matrix composition
Definition
1/3 organic, 2/3inorganic
Term
composition of organic osseous tissue matter
Definition
synthesized by osteoblasts
collage, protein-carb complexes like glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, glycoproteins
Term
composition of inorganic osseous tissue matter
Definition
85% hydroxyapatite
10% calcium carbonate
magnesium, sodium, potassiu, fluoride, sulfate, carbonate, hydroxide ions
Term
hydroxyapatite
Definition
the main component of inorganic osseous matter
a crystallized calcium phosphate salt
Term
composite
Definition
a combination of two basic structural materials
in bone's case, a combination of a ceramic (hydroxyapatite) and polymer(collagen)