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BIO Test 4
Chp 21
43
Biology
04/25/2012

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Term
Why is countercurrent exchange of oxygen in fish gills so efficient?
Definition
It maintains a concentration gradient between the water and the bloodstream for the entire time that the water and blood vessel are in close contact.
Term
Blood flowing out of the narrow, thin-walled vessels in the tissues flows next into:
Definition
veins
Term
Birds and mammals have similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?
Definition
All of the above are correct statements.
Term
Amphibians must constantly keep their skin moist because:
Definition
the moisture is essential to maintain gas exchange across the skin.
Term
Why do many fish swim with their mouths open?
Definition
They do this to ventilate their gills.
Term
Which of the following is the name of the fluid in an insect's open circulatory system?
Definition
hemolymph
Term
Why do cells require oxygen gas?
Definition
Cells need oxygen in order to convert sugar into ATP energy.
Term
Blood pressure falls with distance from the heart. Using this information, which of the following properly lists the type of blood vessel from HIGHEST blood pressure to LOWEST blood pressure?
Definition
arteries; capillaries; veins
Term
Both red blood cells and white blood cells are derived from cells in:
Definition
the bone marrow.
Term
When blood leaves the right ventricle of the mammalian heart, to which location does it flow next?
Definition
the lungs
Term
Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?
Definition
All of the above are correct.
Term
What circulatory problem leads most directly to the formation of varicose veins?
Definition
malfunctioning valves in veins
Term
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the diving adaptations of marine mammals like the Weddell seal?
Definition
Seals increase their blood pressure when they dive.
Term
The hardening of arteries is known as:
Definition
arteriosclerosis
Term
Why are the skins of amphibians and the lungs of mammals kept wet all the time?
Definition
Gas exchange works best when going from air into liquid.
Term
Which of the following best describes the inhalation process?
Definition
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. The diaphragm is pulled lower, causing the rib cage to expand. The rapid increase in volume of the chest cavity causes air to be sucked into the lungs.
Term
Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?
Definition
The heart pumps blood through the body first then past the gills.
Term
A person with a relatively high concentration of diphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) inside his red blood cells would be expected to have:
Definition
hemoglobin with reduced oxygen affinity.
Term
Which of the following statements about the crocodilian circulatory system is FALSE?
Definition
Crocodiles have open circulatory systems.
Term
Which of the following components of the human blood is a cell fragment?
Definition
platelets
Term
Llama hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen. This is because:
Definition
llamas evolved under conditions where the oxygen concentration (pO2) of the air is lower.
Term
Blood has many important functions that are vital to our everyday existence. Which of the following is NOT one of these functions?
Definition
Blood keeps our bodies at homeostasis by maintaining a pH of 4.7.
Term
Which of the following is NOT measured by a polygraph?
Definition
eye twitches
Term
Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a human inhalation?
Definition
nasal passage; pharynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli
Term
Oxygen is carried in the blood stream, throughout the body via:
Definition
red blood cells.
Term
With each heartbeat, the muscle cells coordinate themselves so that each contraction is forceful enough to circulate blood through the entire body. The beat begins in the _____________node, which sets the tempo of each beat, thus giving it the name of pacemaker.
Definition
sinoatrial
Term
Which of the following is measured in the polygraph test in order to detect the activity of the sweat glands?
Definition
skin conductance
Term
Which of the following is NOT a major difference between open and closed circulatory systems?
Definition
Open systems are only found in flat organisms, while closed systems are found in organisms with more complex shape.
Term
What is the disadvantage of having a "single circuit" with the gills set between the heart and the rest of the tissues?
Definition
Organisms with this configuration cannot sustain as much activity as those with two circuits.
Term
Which of the following organisms does NOT have a closed circulatory system?
Definition
Both a) and d) are correct answers.
Term
Oxygen is carried by the protein hemoglobin, which can be found in:
Definition
red blood cells.
Term
What might be the explanation for why crocodiles, but not other reptiles, have an "extra" artery to direct blood to the tissues directly from the right ventricle?
Definition
Crocodiles spend more time underwater and sending blood to inactive lungs makes no sense.
Term
In what way are lymph ducts like veins in the cardiovascular system?
Definition
They both have one-way valves.
Term
Which of the following CANNOT be done by a mammalian red blood cell?
Definition
undergo mitosis
Term
When it comes to acquiring fuel and raw materials, why does the size of a multicellular eukaryotic organism matter? Choose the BEST explanation.
Definition
Larger organisms are made of more cells, most of which are no longer in direct contact with the outside world.
Term
Which of the following is NOT a diving adaptation?
Definition
faster heart rate
Term
Which of the following is NOT a typical type of lung damage that smoking causes?
Definition
All of the above are typical of the damage smoking causes.
Term
The atrioventricular valves of the human heart have "heart strings" attached to the ventricular side of the valve flaps. These strings, properly called chordae tendinae, reach downward from the valves and attach to the bottom of the ventricles. They are long enough to just allow the valve flaps to shut. Which of the following is probably the biological role of the chordae tendinae?
Definition
They prevent the atrioventricular valve flaps from being "blown backwards" into the atria during ventricular contraction.
Term
Organisms with an open circulatory system:
Definition
pump blood throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.
Term
Fish have:
Definition
a two-chambered heart.
Term
Organisms with an open circulatory system:
Definition
pump fluid throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.
Term
Which of the following is NOT a likely characteristic of an organism that relies on simple diffusion for respiration?
Definition
low surface area to volume ratio.
Term
The three principle functions of the vertebrate circulatory system are:
Definition
transport, protection, and body temperature regulation.