Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Bio Exam Questions
The Bio Honors Review
101
Science
06/07/2010

Additional Science Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Which of the following is probably the main factor responsible for the phenomenon of density-dependent inhibition?
Definition
A shortage of growth factors.
Term
Linked genes are an exception to
Definition
Mendel's law of independent assortment.
Term
The following statement is false. (sorry the question was which one of the following was false, and I wasn't going to type all of the choices)
Definition
FalseThe following statement is fasle. (sorry the question said which of the following is false and I wasn't going to type up all of the answers)
The zygote fungi include most plant parasites such as smuts and rusts.
Term
What is a testcross?
Definition
A mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait of interest.
Term
Most differentiated cells retain...
Definition
A complete set of their genes and retain the ability to express those genes under certain circumstances.
Term
How many chromosomes are there in a maize egg cell nucleus as compared to a maize pollen cell nucleus?
Definition
The same number.
Term
Which one of the following statements about mosquitoes living in London is false?
Definition
The subterranean mosquitoes prefer to feed upon bats
Term
What kind of virus is HIV (the AIDS virus)?
Definition
a retrovirus
Term
The electron transport chains of the light reactions
Definition
shuttle electrons along in a series of redox reactions
Term
What enzyme catalyzes the unwinding of a DNA double helix?
Definition
helicase
Term
Which of the following plants has a dominant sporophyte generation and a seed but no fruit?
Definition
pine tree
Term
The genes for the enzymes of glycolysis
Definition
are active in all metabolizing cells but the genes for specialized proteins are expresses only in particular cell types
Term
The phenotypic ratio resulting from dihybrid cross showing independent assortment is expected to be...
Definition
9:3:3:1
Term
Which of these is not a component of meiosis?
Definition
random fertilization
Term
Plants use sugars
Definition
a fuel for cellular respiration and a starting material for making other organic molecules
Term
Mutations in the p53 gene can lead to cancer by
Definition
turning off a gene for a protein that inhibits cell division
Term
Conjugation between a bacterium that lacks an F factor (F-) and a bacterium that has an F factor on its chromosomes (F+) would typically produce...
Definition
The F- bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F+ bacterium, and the F+ bacterium ends up with an unaltered chromosome
Term
The United Nations and other groups are responding to the widespread loss of biodiversity by
Definition
promoting management practices that are sustainable
Term
The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called
Definition
transcription
Term
One of the experiments performed by Charles and Francis Darwin was to cut off the tips of grass seedlings before exposing the seedlings to light from one side. Such decapitated seedlings did not bend. A valid conclusion from this experiment is that...
Definition
light is perceived by the tip of the grass plants
Term
The following statement is false.
Definition
The blending hypothesis suggests that all of the traits of the offspring come from either the mother or father
Term
Which of the following terms refers to the situation where a single phenotypic characteristic is determined by the additive effects of two or more genes?
Definition
polygenic inheritance
Term
A rabbit population consists of animals that are either very dark on top or very light on top. When examining them closely, biologists were surprised to find no rabbit with a medium darkness, intermediate to the two extremes. This is an example of...
Definition
disruptive selection
Term
The following statement is false.
Definition
Adult but not embryonic stem cells can be grown in laboratory culture
Term
The disease phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by recessive allele, and one child in 10,000 is born with disease. Let q represent the frequency of the PKU allele. What is the value of q 2? (fetuses with PKU are no likelier than other fetuses to die before birth)
Definition
0.001
Term
Which one of the following is most analogous to the evolutionary history of most animal groups?
Definition
a bush
Term
The following statement is false.
Definition
Prokaryotic chromosomes are most complex than those of eukaryotes
Term
An individual who does not finish all of prescribed antibiotic is..
Definition
adversely affecting the health of all individuals who, in the future, may be exposed to that bacterial strain
Term
Collectively, jawless fish are...
Definition
agnathans
Term
As a result of the cascade of electrons down the electron transport chains of the light reactions,
Definition
NADP+ is reduced to NADPH
Term
Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase?
Definition
interphase
Term
What is one monotreme?
Definition
echidna
Term
Which of these colors contributes the least energy to photosynthesis?
Definition
green
Term
The following statement is false.
Definition
Meiosis provides for asexual reproduction
Term
A concentration gradient is a form of?
Definition
potential energy
Term
Something stupid about elks that us very long (question 37)
Definition
stabilizing selection
Term
The lac operon in E. coli....
Definition
prevents lactose-utilizing enzymes from being expressed when lactose is absent from the environment.
Term
The following statement is false.
Definition
Most human genetic diseases are treatable if caught early.
Term
A plant's first line of defense against infection is
Definition
its epidermis
Term
The likelihood of allopatric speciation increases when a population is __________ and ____________ the broader range of the species.
Definition
small...isolated from
Term
When animal cells are grown in a petri dish, they typically stop dividing once they have formed a single, unbroken layer on the bottom of the dish. This arrest of division is an example of
Definition
density-dependent inhibition
Term
In most green plants, chloroplasts are
Definition
concentrated in a zone of leaf tissue called the mesophyll
Term
Why does a DNA strand grow only in the 5' to 3' direction?
Definition
because DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing molecule
Term
Threadlike fungal filaments are called
Definition
hyphae
Term
Whch one of the following is a normal process of photosynthesis that would be unable to occur if all reaction centers were inactivated by toxin
Definition
donation of excited electron by chlorophyll a to a primary electron acceptor
Term
The dikaryotic phase of a fungal life cycle is
Definition
a stage in which hyphae contain two, genetically different, haploid nuclei
Term
Plants dependent on nocturnal pollinators typically have flowers that
Definition
are highly scented
Term
Which one of the following statements is false
Definition
The part of the stem were a leaf attaches is called the internode
Term
Two chromosomes in a nucleus that carry loci for the same traits in the same positions on the chromosome but specify different versions if sine traits constitute a pair of
Definition
homologous chromosomes
Term
A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population is called
Definition
microevolution
Term
Which one of the following statements is false
Definition
An entire pea pod represents an aggregate fruit
Term
Which one of the following is an example of a hybrid that is both vigorous and sterile
Definition
a mule
Term
Most polyploid species arise from
Definition
the hybridization of two parent species
Term
The digestive tract of a nematode is most like which of the following
Definition
a soda straw
Term
varieties of plants in which self-fertilization produces offspring that are identical to the parents are referred to as
Definition
true-breeding
Term
Which one of the the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?
Definition
differential reproductive success
Term
Which characteristic is shared by algae and seed plants?
Definition
cell walls
Term
The 18th century French naturalist Lamarck argues for which of the following ideas
Definition
species evolve, and the characteristics an individual develops as a result of using or not
Term
Wholesale commercial production of many horticultural crops make use of cloning techniques.
Definition
Plans produced by cloning grow more uniformly
Term
A small oak seedling... blah blah blah
Definition
a significant loss in the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil
Term
Cancer of the colon i caused by
Definition
several somatic cell mutations
Term
punctuated equilibrium differs from gradualism model because in punctuated equilibrium
Definition
All of the choices are right! yayz!
Term
Which of the following is the factor that initiated flowering in long-day plants?
Definition
nights shorter that a critical day
Term
Which of the following is not a characteristic of modern birds?
Definition
teeth
Term
What is the expected phenotypic ratio of the following cross: *inset thingy*
Definition
9:3:3:1
Term
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up on a plane located equidistant from the two spindle poles?
Definition
metaphase
Term
Which of the following is found in plant and animal cells?
Definition
mitochondria
Term
In the chloroplast, sugars are made in compartment that is filled with a thick fluid called the
Definition
stroma
Term
Consider the following sentence: "The dog did not eat" reading frame mutation
Definition
The dod idn ote at
Term
Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of moth species that could interbreed except that the females' mating pheromones are not attractive to the males of other species.
Definition
behavioral isolation
Term
HIV delivers its greatest damage to
Definition
white blood cells
Term
mendels law of independent assortment states that
Definition
each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation
Term
whic one of the following is false?
Definition
dna packing tends to promote gene expresion
Term
you are asked to culture an unidentified sample of animal tissue...
Definition
cancer
Term
During the 1950's a scientist named lysenko...
Definition
he assumed that exposure could induce a plant to develop additional cold tolerance and that this tolerance would be passed to the plant's offspring
Term
A mushroom
Definition
is an above ground fruiting body connected to a mycelium
Term
Why are (most) plants green?
Definition
Chlorophyll a reflects green light
Term
Which one of the following is not a characteristic of cnidarians?
Definition
Cnidarians have three true tissue layers
Term
What is a mutation?
Definition
a random change in an organism's DNA
Term
What is a mutation?
Definition
a random change in an organism's DNA
Term
Proteins that bind to DNA and turn on operons by making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to a promoter are called
Definition
activators
Term
virus spreading
Definition
transduction
Term
cancer is not usually inherited because
Definition
the chromosomal changes in cancer are usually confined to somatic cells
Term
What term is used to refer to structures that have a similar origin or ancestry even though they may b very different in appearance?
Definition
homologous
Term
Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells
Definition
in the cytoplasm
Term
Which one of the following is not a function of mitosis? mitosis helps organisms
Definition
all of the choices are correct!
Term
Which one of the following is false
Definition
most fungi are autotrophs
Term
Which of the following are polyploid plants
Definition
all of the choices
Term
What prevents a seed released in the fall from germinating immediately?
Definition
abscisic acid
Term
Which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids?
Definition
heavy use of antibiotics in medicine and in agriculture
Term
Why are sex-linkedconditions more common in men that in women?
Definition
Men need to inherit only one copy of the recessive alle for the condition to be fully expressed
Term
The calvin cycle constructs ___, an energy-rich molecules that a plant cell can then use to make glucose or other organic molecules
Definition
G3P
Term
In a prokaryote, a group of genes with related functions, along with their associated control sequences, defines
Definition
an operon
Term
Which of the following does not enhance genetic diversity
Definition
mitosis of somatic cells
Term
95% of plants
Definition
have a dominant sporophyte in their life cycle
Term
In a photosystem, clusters of chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoid pigments function
Definition
an antenna
Term
Which of the following enzymes catalyzes th linking together of RNA nucleotides to form RNA?
Definition
RNA polymerase
Term
Which one of the following statements about fruit fly development is false
Definition
the location of the head and tail ends of the egg is primarily determined by the location of sperm entry during fertilization
Term
Where is the cat?
chromosomal deletion
Definition
Where is cat?
Term
A woody plant goes through 5 years of drought by 5 years of good growing conditions. the xylem cells formed during the 5 good years will
Definition
be larger in diameter that hose formed during the drought years
Term
many genetic disorders of humans are caused by
Definition
recessive alleles