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Behavior Modification
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158
Psychology
04/16/2009

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Cards

Term
Before 16th century
Definition
Performationsism
Term
17th century
Definition
Locke
Term
18th century
Definition

Rousseau

Term
Late 18th century
Definition
Gesell
Term
20th century
Definition
Piaget/Montessori
Term

Locke's Theory?

Definition

Environmentalism

 

Environment molds the mind

child's mind tabula rasa/blank slate

Person's experience comes from enviroment

 

Term
Performationism beliefs?
Definition

children were fully formed miniature adults

children born preformed in adult mold

Term
Rousseau's belief
Definition

*children were not blank slates, have their own modes of feeling and thinking

*grow according to nature's plan 

*learn own ways separate from environment

*was vital for us to give nature a chance to guide the child's growth

*Father of developmental psychology

Term
Gesell's Theory
Definition

Maturational

Biological Maturation

Term
Gesell's beliefs?
Definition

*child's growth or development is influenced by two major forces(product of his own environment; action of genes)

*maturational development always unfolds in fixed sequence

*1. heart

2. cells form central nervous system-brain and spinal cord

3. brain and head

4. arms and legs

*Sequential development continues after birth(lips, tongues, neck, shoulders, arems, hands, fingers, trunk, legs, and feet)

*Children vary in rates of development but in same sequences

 

Term
Gesells' beliefs continued
Definition

*inner time table

*opposed to teaching things ahead of schedule

*children will sit up, walk and talk when they are ready and their central nervous systems have sufficiently matured

Term
Rousseau's stages
Definition
Infancy
childhood
late childhood
adolescence
Term

How does Locke reward and punish?

Definition

* Opposed to physical punishment

*physical punishment often ineffective

*opposed use of money or sweets

*best rewards praise and flattery

*best punishment is disapproval

 

Term
Locke and children's fear
Definition

*gentle degrees

*if child fears animal, let someone else sit beside the animal at some distance until child can watch it without fear

Term
Locke and academic instruction
Definition

*instruction is most effective when children enjoy it

*take advantage of a child's natural curiousity

Term
Locke's principles of learning
Definition

association

repitition

imitation(modeling)

rewards and punishments

 

 

Term
Lockes education philosphy
Definition

*child has strength to control his own desires

*parental discipline does establish good habits

*rewards and punishments (natural not sweets)

*gentle degrees to eliminate fear

Term

Rousseau's Theory of Development

Definition

*Stage 1  Infancy (birth to about 2 years)

infants experience the world directly through senses

* Childhood (about 2 to 12 years)

children gain  a new independence(walk, talk, feed themselves and run)

*Late Childhood (transition between childhood and adolescence: about 12-15)

physical strength, work of adults

make substantial progress in cognitive sphere(do well in geometry and science)

 

*during these three stages they are all about themselves, presocial and self-centered

 

Adolescence (15 up)

*social

*begins with puberty

*"children's second birth"

"presence of opposite sex"

 

Term

Gessel's 3 main points

and  3 Principles of  Growth or Development

Definition

1. detailed behavior norms

2. infant intelligence

3. child centered approach to raising children (eat when hungry, sleep when sleepy)

 

 

1.  reciprocal interweaving-developmental process by which two tendencies gradually reach an effective organization

2. functional asymmetry-confront world at an angle (right handed, or tonic neck reflex in babies

3.  self regulation-believed we can regulate our own development (eat when hungry, sleep when sleepy)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

What is Gessel know for?

Definition
His sequence of development
Term
Montessori's Theory of Development
Definition

*just like rousseau....focused on self-learning of children

* just like rousseau-the thinking patterns of children are different from adults

*blocks of time when children are eager to learn- called The Sensitive Period (teachable moment)

 

*concentration-happens when child finds a task that meets that inner needs during a sensitive period

 

Term
Montessori-Early education in the home
Definition

*education begins with parents

*allowing them free choice to explore

*natural setting

*appreciate the outdoors

*rewards and punishments

*child leads teacher follows

*adults should not encourage fantasy

 

 

Term
Effectiveness of a Montessori Classroom
Definition

*quiet

*develops independence

*the education outcomes should be secondary to the development of the child

 

 

Term

Piaget's 4 Developmental Periods

Definition

1. Sensory Motor Intelligence (Birth to Two)

2. PreOperational Thought (Two to Seven)

3. Concrete (Seven to Eleven)

4. Formal Operational (12 up

Term
Piaget's Big Ideas and Beliefs
Definition

*children pass through stages at different rates but same order (can't skip, but can move into them at different times)

*developmental change, not maturational, in children guide their change by exploring their environment

*children can move from stage to stage by cultural and enviromenmental factors

 

Term
Importance of Piaget's stages
Definition

1. knowing a students age is never a guarantee of what stage that child is in

2. students can operate at more than one stage depending on the problem

3. one stage builds upon the other-a definite continuity of thinking at each stage

Term
Three Biological Tendencies of Piaget
Definition

1. Assimilation

2. Accomodation

3. Organization

Term
Schema
Definition
* a general way of thinking about ideas and objects in the environment
Term
Organization
Definition
*is the process by which children combine existing schema into new and more complex intellectual structures(i.e. concept maps)
Term
organizing
Definition
Piaget believes that children are constantly ____________ their available schemata into higher-order coherent systems or schemas.
Term
adapt
Definition
Piaget believed that from the moment of birth, a person begins to look for ways to ________ satisfactorily to the environment.
Term
Assimilation and Accomodation
Definition
*Adaption occurs through two complimentary activities ___________________ and _______________
Term
Assimilation
Definition

The process by which the child tries to interpret new experiences in terms of existing models of the world-the schemata that she already possesses

 

Seeing an airplane in the sky prompts child to call the flying object a birdie

Term
Adaptation
Definition
* A person looks for ways to adapt satisfactorily to the enviroment
Term
Accomodation
Definition

 process of modifying existing schema in order to incorporate or to better account for or to adapt to a puzzling new experience.

 

 

Child now experience unequilibrum or conflict upon noticing that the new birdie has no feathers and doesn't flap its wings.  Concludes that it is not a bird and either renames it or asks what it is.

Term
Equilibruium
Definition

*Harmony between one's schemes and one's experience

 

 

The world makes sense

Term

Maturation

Activity

Social Transmission

Equilibration

Definition

What are the four factors that influence development according to Piaget?

 

MASE

Term
Maturation
Definition
*The emergence of biological changes that are genetically programed in each human being at conception.  This is least changeable factor.
Term
Activity
Definition
* A person acting on the enviroment, exploring, testing, observing, or just actively thinking about a problem is engaging in experiences that may alter his or her thinking processes.
Term
Social Transmission
Definition

*Learning from others.  Without this, people would need to reinvent all the knowledge already offered by their culture.

Term
Equilabration
Definition

* The actual changes in thinking take place through the process of?

Term
THE CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (7 to 11)
Definition

children are RAPIDLY ACQUIRING COGNITIVE OPERATIONS and applying these important new skills when thinking about objects, situations, and events that have seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. They now understand REVERSIBILITY. The operations of cognitive ADDITION and SUBTRACTION permit the child to discover the logical relation between whole classes and subclasses by mentally adding the parts to form a super-ordinate whole and then reversing this action (subtracting) to once again think of the whole as a collection of sub-classes.

Term
Piaget's Sensimotor Stage
Definition
It lasts from birth to about two years old.  As the name implies, the infant uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world, beginning with reflexes and ending with complex combinations of sensorimotor skills.
Term
secondary circular reactions
Definition

Between four and 12 months, the infant turns to __________________________, which involve an act that extends out to the environment:  She may squeeze a rubber duckie.  It goes “quack.”  That’s great, so do it again, and again, and again.  She is learning “procedures that make interesting things last.”

At this point, other things begin to show up as well.  For example, babies become ticklish, although they must be aware that someone else is tickling them or it won’t work.  And they begin to develop object permanence.  This is the ability to recognize that, just because you can’t see something doesn’t mean it’s gone!  Younger infants seem to function by an “out of sight, out of mind” schema.  Older infants remember, and may even try to find things they can no longer see.

Term
Primary Circular Reactions
Definition

Between one and four months, the child works on ___________ -- just an action of his own which serves as a stimulus to which it responds with the same action, and around and around we go.  For example, the baby may suck her thumb.  That feels good, so she sucks some more...  Or she may blow a bubble.  That’s interesting so I’ll do it again....

Term
tertiary circular reactions
Definition

Between 12 months and 24 months, the child works on ________________ They consist of the same “making interesting things last” cycle, except with constant variation.  I hit the drum with the stick -- rat-tat-tat-tat.  I hit the block with the stick -- thump-thump.  I hit the table with the stick -- clunk-clunk.  I hit daddy with the stick -- ouch-ouch.  This kind of active experimentation is best seen during feeding time, when discovering new and interesting ways of throwing your spoon, dish, and food.

Term
Preoperational stage
Definition

The ________________ lasts from about two to about seven years old.  Now that the child has mental representations and is able to pretend, it is a short step to the use of symbols.

Term
egocentric
Definition

On the other hand, the child is quite _________ during Preoperational stage, that is, he sees things pretty much from one point of view:  his own!  She may hold up a picture so only she can see it and expect you to see it too. Or she may explain that grass grows so she won’t get hurt when she falls.

Term
conserve
Definition

The concrete stage begins with progressive decentering.  By six or seven, most children develop the ability to _______ number, length, and liquid volume. 

Term
Conservation
Definition
_______________refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance.  If you show a child four marbles in a row, then spread them out, the preoperational child will focus on the spread, and tend to believe that there are now more marbles than before.

[image]

Term
Classification
Definition
___________________refers back to the question of whether there are more marbles or more black marbles?  Now the child begins to get the idea that one set can include another. 
Term
Seriation
Definition
________ is putting things in order.
Term
Formal operations stage
Definition

From around 12 on, we enter the _______ __________ stage.  Here we become increasingly competent at adult-style thinking.  This involves using logical operations, and using them in the abstract, rather than the concrete.  We often call this hypothetical thinking.

Term
Encoding
Definition

n  Gathering information and organizing it in relation to what you already know

Term
storage
Definition
Holding information
Term
Retrieval
Definition

  Getting at information when needed

Term

1. learner actively involved in own learning

2. information must be relavant

3. responsible for own learning

Definition

according to Information Processing what are the 3 keys to active learning?

 

 

Term

1. Memory Structures or Stores

2. Cognitive Processes

Definition
Two major components of the Information Processing Model of Cognitive Functioning
Term
Definition
Term

1. sensory register (memory)

2. short-term memory

3. long-term memory

Definition
Most cognitive theorists use three memory stores:  What are they?
Term
Cognitive Processes
Definition
What are the operations at the disposal of the persons controlling the flow of information through the IPM
Term

1. attention

2. perception

3. rehearsal

4. encoding

5. searching (retrieval)

Definition

What are the basic processes of the IPM?

Term
Sensory Receptors
Definition
Stimilu from the environment, or in this model---info in the form of some physical energy(light for print, sound for speech, pressure, for touch, etc.) is received by our_______________(eyes, ears, etc,)
Term
Sensory Receptors
Definition
Our primary contact with the world and allow us to experience the environment
Term

Sensory Register

Definition
The info received by our Sensory Receptors is sent to the ____________ ___________ in the form of elctrochemical impulses.
Term

1. vision

2. auditory

Definition
There appears to be different sensory registers for each sense, but research has focused almost entirely on ___________(seeing) and ____________(hearing)
Term
Sensory Registers
Definition
Primarily holding systems with unlimited capacity that very briefly retain the info input as an exact replica of the original environmental stimulus
Term

1. 1/2

2. 4

Definition

______ of a second for visual

up to _______ seconds for auditory

Term

1. Perception

2. Attention

Definition
Of all the stimuli in the sensory register only a few are sent on to the STM.  This reduction process is called Selective ______________or Selective __________.
Term

1. selected

2. meaning

Definition
For information to have been sent to short term memory it must have been __________(or attented to) and given ___________ by the person.
Term
attention
Definition
The general distribution of mental activity to the tasks performed by the individual.
Term
pattern recogition
Definition
Refers to how stimuli in the environment are recognized as something stored in memory.  It also involves retrieving info about the incoming information for long term memroy and sending the additional info to STM
Term
expectancies
Definition
is an awareness, belief, or anticipation that some event is likely to occur in a given stimulus
Term

1. prior learning or experiences

2. what we think if important/ directions given to the learner

3. motivation of learner

Definition

What three sources do expectancies arise from?

 

Term
short term memory
Definition
The part or stage of memory that corresponds to awareness or active consciousness
Term

1. 18

2. rehearse

Definition
Duration of information in STM is temporary and items are lost within ______ seconds unless your actively __________(example rote memorization)
Term
is not
Definition

Info (is or is not) stored as an exact replica in STM as it is in the sensory register

Term
unrehearsed
Definition
 Info in STM that goes ______________ is forgotten within a matter of seconds
Term

1. 6-7

2. 18

Definition
It appears that a considerable amount of info held in STM storage is typically lost after ___-____seconds and very little lasts longer than ___________ seconds.
Term
Decay
Definition
Information lost as a result of the passage of time
Term
interference
Definition

Research studies now suggest that little forgetting is attibuted to decay  but mostly now to _____________

Term

1. Decay

2. Inference

3. Displacement

Definition
3 ways info can be lost in STM
Term
Rehearsed
Definition

Info can be maintained in STM indefinitely as long as it is _____________---that is focused on and REPEATED mentall or aloud

Term
Maintenance rehearsal
Definition
a method of keeping info active in consciousness (i.e. extending the length of time infor remains in STM) by rotely repeating the info in auditory form
Term
Definition
Term
Definition
Term
span
Definition
STM has a very limited capacity referred to as the Memory_____
Term

7+-2

Definition
The number of times that can be reliably recalled is considered to be approx.___________ chunks
Term
Chunking
Definition
the process for organizing information so that more info can be stored in STM (example 770-328-6102)
Term
working memory
Definition
 What is another word for STM
Term

1. rehearsal

2. chunking

Definition

____________ determines which and how long info stays in STM, and _____________ determines how much infor stays in STM

Term

1. Maintence Rehearsing

2. Elaborative Encoding

Definition
What are two methods of transferring info from STM to LTM
Term
Definition
Term
Elaborative encoding
Definition
the process by which a person makes to-be learning info more MEANINGFUL by associating it with PREVIOUSLY EXPERIENCES and orKNOWLEDGE
Term
decay
Definition
forgotten
Term
interference
Definition
old info mixing with new
Term
dispacement
Definition
too much info (overflowing)
Term
Long Term
Definition
Info coded in working memory may be transferred to _____ _______ memory
Term

1. Retrieval failure

2. Interference

3. Decay

Definition
Three theories of forgetting/ losing info from LTM
Term

retrieval failure

Definition
Of the three ways of forgetting for LTM, which is the major reason?
Term
proactive interference
Definition
prior existence of old memories makes it harder to recall newer memories.
Term
Retroactive interference
Definition
later learning interferes with previous learning
Term
retrieved
Definition
Once info is stored in LTM, to be used again it must once again be______________
Term
Response Generator
Definition
Retrieved info forms the basis of ______________ ____________.(conversion box)
Term
LTM to STM and then to the Response Generator
Definition
In conscious thouht, info is said to flow from from where to where and then to where?
Term

LTM to Response Generator

Definition
For Automatice Response, however, info is said to flow from _______________ to the ____________ ____________ during retrieval.
Term

automaticity

Definition
This occurs when a skill or an operation becomes overlearned so that it becomes possible to perform the skill/operation without thinking about it.(driving somewhere and not remember how you got there)
Term
effectors
Definition

The response generator organizes the response sequences and guides the _________

Term
Effectors
Definition
include all of the muscles and glands, but for school tasks, the main effectors are the arems and hands for writing and the voice appartatus for speaking
Term
Response Generator
Definition
A "conversion box" converting cognitive activity into messages for physical activity
Term
Metacognition
Definition
Ability to think about our own thinking. I can assess my skills; assess my own problems
Term
Metacognition
Definition
Knowledge and control of cognitive processes
Term
A major theoretical orientation in psychology that arugues that the on OBSERVABLE behavior can be studied scientifically.
Definition
Behaviorism
Term
The view that human behavior, whether adaptive or maladaptive is essentially LEARNED
Definition
Behavior Model
Term
Defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential as a result or practice or experiences
Definition
Learning
Term
A learning process involving the formation, strenghtening, and weakening of response tendencies.  A simple form of learning in which associations are learned between stimilu and responses. 
Definition
Conditioning
Term
The two major of conditioning
Definition

Respondent (Pavlovian and classical) and operant(instrumental)

 

Term
An associative learning process through which previously neutral stimuli, through pairing with other non-neutral stimuli, become able to evoke involuntary responses.
Definition
Classical (Respondent, Pavlovian) Conditioning
Term
A type of learning in which a Neutral Stimulus is paired with an Unconditioned Stimulus that elicits a reflex (U
Definition
Involuntary Responses
Term
eliminates behavior by breaking the stimulus-response connection.
Definition
Extinction
Term

 

occurs without an observable external stimulus

             

Operates on the organism’s environment

             

The behavior is instrumental in securing a stimulus more representative of everyday learning

Definition
Operant behavior
Term
 constant delivery of reinforcement for an action; every time a specific action was performed the subject instantly and always received a reinforcement. This method is prone to extinction and is very hard to enforce.
Definition
Continuous reinforcement
Term
reinforcement is set for certain times. (Variable) — times between reinforcement are not set, and often differ.
Definition
Interval (fixed/variable) reinforcement (Fixed)
Term
deals with a set amount of work needed to be completed before there is reinforcement. (Variable) — amount of work needed for the reinforcement differs from the last.
Definition
Ratio (fixed or variable) reinforcement (Fixed)
Term
B. F. Skinner’s entire system is based on ?
Definition
operant conditioning
Term
the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organisms tendency to repeat the behavior in the future.”
Definition
operant conditioning
Term
A behavior no longer followed by the reinforcing stimulus results in a decreased probability of that behavior occurring in the future
Definition
Extinction
Term
Every time that the rat does the behavior (such as pedal-pushing), he gets a rat goodie.
Definition
Continuous reinforcement
Term
the method of successive approximations.”  Basically, it involves first reinforcing a behavior only vaguely similar to the one desired.  Once that is established, you look out for variations that come a little closer to what you want, and so on, until you have the animal performing a behavior that would never show up in ordinary life. 
Definition
Shaping
Term
Extinguish an undesirable behavior (by removing the reinforcer) and replace it with a desirable behavior by reinforcement. 
Definition
behavior modification
Term
the type of learning made famous by Pavlov's experiments with dogs
Definition
Classical Conditioning
Term
Stimuli that animals react to without training
Definition
unconditioned stimuli
Term
Stimuli that animals react to only after learning about them
Definition
conditioned stimuli
Term
forms an association between two stimuli.
Definition
Classical conditioning
Term
forms an association between a behavior and a consequence. (It is also called response-stimulus or RS conditioning because it forms an association between the animal's response [behavior] and the stimulus that follows [consequence])
Definition
Operant conditioning
Term
The technical term for "an event started" or "an item presented" is             since it's something that's added to the animal's environment.
Definition
positive
Term
The technical term for "an event ended" or "an item taken away" is          since it's something that's subtracted from the animal's environment.
Definition
negative,
Term
Anything that increases a behavior - makes it occur more frequently, makes it stronger, or makes it more likely to occur - is termed a
Definition
Reinforcer
Term
Anything that decreases a behavior - makes it occur less frequently, makes it weaker, or makes it less likely to occur - is termed a
Definition
punisher
Term
Something Good can start or be presented, so behavior increases =
Definition
Positive Reinforcement (R+)
Term
Something Good can end or be taken away, so behavior decreases =
Definition
Negative Punishment (P-)
Term
Something Bad can start or be presented, so behavior decreases =
Definition
Positive Punishment (P+)
Term
Something Bad can end or be taken away, so behavior increases =
Definition
Negative Reinforcement (R-)
Term
(behavior increases)
Definition
Reinforcement
Term
(behavior decreases)
Definition
Punishment
Term
(something added)
Definition
Positive
Term
Something added increases behavior
Definition
Positive Reinforcement:
Term
Something added decreases behavior
Definition
Positive Punishment
Term
(something removed)
Definition
Negative
Term
Something removed increases behavior
Definition
Negative Reinforcement
Term
Something removed decreases behavior
Definition
Negative Punishment
Term
means that a reward will occur after a fixed amount of time. For example, every five minutes. Paychecks work on this schedule - every two weeks I got one.
Definition
 fixed interval
Term
means that reinforcers will be distributed after a varying amount of time. Sometimes it will be five minutes, sometimes three, sometimes seven, sometimes one. My e-mail account works on this system - at varying intervals I get new mail (for me, email is generally a Good Thing!).
Definition
A variable interval schedule
Term
means that if a behavior is performed X number of times, there will be one reinforcement on the Xth performance. For a fixed ratio of 1:3, every third behavior will be rewarded. This type of ratio tends to lead to lousy performance with some animals and people, since they know that the first two performances will not be rewarded, and the third one will be no matter what. Some assembly-line production systems work on this schedule - the worker gets paid for every 10 widgets she makes. A fixed ratio of 1:1 means that every correct performance of a behavior will be rewarded.
Definition
A fixed ratio
Term
means that reinforcers are distributed based on the average number of correct behaviors. A variable ratio of 1:3 means that on average, one out of every three behaviors will be rewarded. It might be the first. It might be the third. It might even be the fourth, as long as it averages out to one in three This is often referred to as a variable schedule of reinforcement or VSR (in other words, it's often assumed that when someone writes "VSR" they are referring to a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement).
Definition
A variable ratio schedule
Term
, there is no correlation between the animal's behavior and the consequence. This is how Fate works.
Definition
With a random schedule
Term
If reinforcement fails to occur after a behavior that has been reinforced in the past, the behavior might extinguish. This process is called           . A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement makes the behavior less vulnerable to extinction. If you're not expecting to gain a reward every time you accomplish a behavior, you are not likely to stop the first few times your action fails to generate the desired consequence. This is the principle that slot machines are based on. "OK, I didn't win this time, but next time I'm almost sure to win!"
Definition
extinction.
Term
Definition