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Back Muscles
Ugh!
23
Anatomy
06/12/2009

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Cards

Term
Rectus capitus posterior major
Definition

Forms medial boundary of suboccipital triangle. Fibers course superomedially.

 

originspinous process of C2 (axis)


insertion:  lateral inferior nuchal line


innervation:  C1 posterior ramus


action:

    bilteral- extend head

    unilateral- ipsilateral rotation of head

Term
Rectus capitus posterior minor
Definition

Fibers course superiorly.

 

insertion: medial inferior nuchal line


innervation: C1 posterior ramus


action: extend head

Term
Obliquus capitis superior
Definition

Forms lateral boundary of suboccipital triangle. Fibers course superiorly.

 

origin: transverse process of C1 (atlas)

 

insertion: lateral skull between nuchal lines

 

innervation: C1 posterior ramus

 

action:

bilateral- extend head

unilateral- ipsilateral bending of head

Term
Obliquus capitis inferior
Definition

Deep to the semispinalis captitis follow greater occipital nerve to obliquus capitis inferior. Inferior boundary of suboccipital triangle. Fibers course laterally.

 

origin: spinous process C2 (axis)

 

insertion: transverse process C1 (atlas)

 

innervation: C1 posterior ramus

 

action: ipsilateral rotation of head

Term
Semispinalis capitis
Definition

Lies deep to the splenius, fibers course vertically, parallel to the long axis of the neck. Greater occipital nerve passes through this muscle.

 

origin: transverse processes of thoracic to lower cervical vertebrae

 

insertion: occipital bone between the superior and inferior nuchal lines

 

innervation: posterior rami of spinal nerves

 

action:

bilateral- extend back and head

unilateral- contralateral rotation of vertebral column, ipsilateral rotation of head

Term
Semispinalis cervicis
Definition

Located deep to the erector spinae, fibers course superomedially

 

origin: transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

 

insertion: inserts on spinous processes 4-6 vertebrae superior to origination

 

innervation: posterior rami of spinal nerves

 

action:

bilateral- extend back and head

unilateral- contralateral rotation of the vertebral column, ipsilateral rotation of the head

Term

Rhomboid major

(shaped like a kite)

Definition

Plane of separation between major and minor may not be obvious

 

origin: spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebrae

 

insertion: medial border of scapula inferior to base of spine

 

innervation: dorsal scapular nerve

 

action: retract and downward rotation of scapula

Term
Rhomboid minor
Definition

Plane of separation between major and minor may not be obvious

 

origin: spinous processes of lower cervical to 1st thoracic vertebrae

 

insertion: medial border of scapla superior to base of spine

 

innervation: dorsal scapular nerve

 

action: retract and downward rotation of scapula

Term
Multifidus
Definition

Located deep to the erector spinae. Only muscles with fibers that lie across the posterior surface of the sacrum.


origin: common tendon of erector spinae/arch of vertebrae

 

insertion: spinous processes of vertebrae 2-4 levels superior

 

innervation: posterior rami of spinal nerves

 

action:

bilateral- extend back

unilateral- contralateral rotation of vertebral column

Term
Rotatores
Definition

Lie deep to the multifidus

 

origin: transverse processes of lumbar through cervical vertebrae

 

insertion: spinous processes of vertebrae 1-2 levels supeior

 

innervation: posterior rami of spinal nerves

 

action:

bilateral- extend back

unilateral- contralateral rotation of vertebral column

Term
Levator costarum
Definition

origin: transverse processes thoracic vertebrae

 

insertion: rib inferior to origin

 

innervation: C1 posterior ramus

 

action: elevate ribs

Term
Iliocostalis
Definition

Lateral column of erector spinae group. Long tendons extend laterally beneath the scapula. Lies deep to the posterior serratus muscles.

 

origin: common tendon and ribs

 

insertion: ribs

 

innervation: posterior rami of spinal nerves

 

action:

bilateral- extend bac

unilateral- lateral bending

Term
Longissimus
Definition

Longest muscle in the body. Intermediate muscle of the erector spinae. Lies deep to the posterior serratus muscles.

 

origin: common tendon and upper transverse processes

 

insertion: ribs, transverse processes of thoracic and cervical vertebrae, mastoid process

 

innervation: posterior rami of spinal nerves

 

action:

bilateral- extend back

unilateral- ipsilateral head rotation, lateral bending

Term
Spinalis
Definition

Medial column of erector spinae, lies deep to the serratus posterior muscles. Lies close to the spine in the lamina groove.

 

origin: common tendon, inferior thoracic to inferior cervical spinous processes, blends semispinalis capitis


insertion: spinous processes, semispinalis capitis

 

innervation: posterior ramus of spinal nerves

 

action:

bilateral- extend back

unilateral- ipsilateral head rotation, lateral bending

Term
Splenius capitis
Definition

Lies deep to the trapezius, its fibers course obliquely acrosss neck toward the mastiod process.

 

origin: ligamentum nuchae, cervical spinous processes

 

insertion: mastoid process, lateral superior nuchal line

 

innervation: posterior rami of spinal nerves

 

action:

bilateral- extend head and neck

unilateral-ipsilateral head rotation

Term
Splenius cervicis
Definition

Lies deep to the capitis, not easliy isolated. General location can be outlined in the lamina groove of the upper thoracic and cervical spine.

 

origin: mid-thoracic spinous processes

 

insertion: transverse processes C1-C3

 

innervation: posterior rami of spinal nerves

 

action:

bilateral- extend neck (and head

unilateral- ipsilateral head rotation

Term
Definition
Term
Trapezius
Definition

origin: superior nuchal line, nuchal ligament, thoracic spinous processes

 

insertion: lateral clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula

 

innervation: CN XI (upper cervical anterior rami for proprioception)

 

action: elevate, retract, depress scapula

Term
Latissimus dorsi
Definition

Broadest muscle of the back

 

origin: lower thoracic and lumbar spinous processes, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest

 

insertion: intertubercular sulcus of humerus

 

innervation: thoracodorsal nerve

 

action: adduct, medially rotate, extend arm

Term
Levator scapulae
Definition

origin: superior cervical transverse processes

 

insertion: superior angle scapula

 

innervation: upper cervical anterior rami

 

action: elevates the scapula

Term
Serratus posterior superior
Definition

Intermediate muscle, very thin

 

origin: ligamentum nuchae, upper spinous processes


insertion: ribs 2-5


innervation: anterior rami of spinal nerves


action: elevate ribs 2-5

Term
Serratus posterior inferior
Definition

Intermediate muscle, very thin

 

origin: inferior thoracic to superior lumbar spinous processes

 

insertion: ribs 9-12

 

innervation: anterior rami of spinal nerves

 

action: depress ribs 9-12

Term
Triangle of auscultation
Definition

Within the triangle of auscultation, intercostal space 6 has no overlying muscle making it ideal for auscultation.

 

bounded by: latissimus dorsi, trapezius, and rhomboid major