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Aviation Test on Meteorology
Chap. 6-7 Flashcards for Fundamentals of Aviation Class
80
Aviation
11/01/2011

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Cards

Term
Unequal heating of the Earth's surface
Definition
What is the cause of variations in altimeter settings between weather reporting points?
Term
Friction between the wind and the surface...winds aloft 5000 ft are largely affected by coriolis force.
Definition
The wind at 5000 ft AGL is SW while the surface wind is S. Why is there a difference?
Term
Cool dense air moving inland from over water
Definition
Convective circulation patterns with sea breezes are caused by, what?
Term
Solar Heating
Definition
Development of thermals depends on, what?
Term
Front
Definition
Term for boundary between 2 air masses.
Term
Wind direction
Definition
What changes when flying across a front?
Term
Wind-shear turbulence
Definition
If there is a thunderstorm at the local airport, which hazardous phenomenon might be expected in the landing approach?
Term
Squall line
Definition
Nonfrontal, narrow band of active thunderstorms ahead of a cold front is known as what?
Term

1. High humidity

2. Lifting force

3. Unstable conditions

Definition
What three conditions are neccesary for a thunderstorm to develop?
Term
Dissipating
Definition
Which stage in the thunderstorm life cycle is characterized by downdrafts?
Term
Mature Stage
Definition
Which stage does a thunderstorm reach greatest intensity?
Term
Continuous Updraft
Definition
What is normally associated with the cumulus stage of thunderstorms?
Term
Yes
Definition
Does precipitation falling signify the mature stage of a T-storm?
Term
Visible Moisture
Definition
In-flight condition neccesary for structural icing to form is...?
Term
In Freezing Rain
Definition
When would structural icing be most likely?
Term
Lenticular cloud
Definition
Almond-shaped cloud which appears stationary but which may contain winds up to 50 knots is referred to as what?
Term
Mountain wave turbulence
Definition
When winds of 40 knots or greater blow across a mountain ridge and the air is stable, it can cause what?
Term
Wind shear
Definition
Eddies in between two wind currents of differing velocities, direction, or both. Occurs at all altitudes and in all directions.
Term

1. Low-level temp. inversion

2. Frontal zones

3. Clear air turbulence

Definition
What three things can contribute to wind shear?
Term
Fog or low clouds develop
Definition
What happens when the temp./dew point decreases?
Term
Dewpoint
Definition
The temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated or have 100% humidity...what am I?
Term
Temp. of collecting surface is at or below the dewpoint of the adjacent air and the dewpoint is below freezing.
Definition
What conditions result in frost formation?
Term
Condenses
Definition
Clouds, fog and dew will always form when water vapor ____________?
Term
Steam fog
Definition
Forms in winter when cold, dry air passes from land areas over comparatively warm ocean waters and is composed entirely of water droplets that often freeze quickly...what am I?
Term
When moist air moves over colder ground or water. Most common in coastal areas.
Definition
When does advection fog form?
Term
Radiation Fog
Definition
Shallow fog of which ground fog is one form. It occurs under clear skies, little or no wind and a small temp./dew point spread...what am I?
Term
Upslope Fog
Definition
Forms when wind blows moist air upwards over rising terrain and the air cools below the dew point....what am I?
Term

1. High clouds

2. Middle clouds

3. Low clouds

4. Clouds with extensive vertical development

Definition
What are the four families of clouds?
Term
Rain cloud
Definition
The suffix "nimbus" refers to what?
Term
Unstable, moist air
Definition
The conditions necessary for the formation of cumulonimbus clouds are a lifting action and.....?
Term
Towering cumulus clouds (they are an early stage of cumulonimbus clouds)
Definition
What cloud type would indicate convective turbulence?
Term
4.4 degrees/1000 ft
Definition
When air rises in a convective current, it cools at a rate of 5.4 degrees/1000 ft. The dew point decreases at 1 degree/1000 ft. The temp. and dewpoint are then converging at what ratio??
Term

3000 ft.

(Formula: 69-56=13 degrees. 

13/4.4=2.95

Round 2.95 to 3 and it equals 3000 ft.)

 

Definition
The surface dewpoint is 56 degrees. The surface temp is 69 degrees. What is the cloud base of cumulus clouds in feet?
Term

[image]

Stratiform Clouds

Definition
What is a characteristic of stable air?
Term
Clouds with large vertical development and associated turbulence
Definition
If an unstable air mass is forced upward, what type of clouds can be expected?
Term

1. Turbulence

2. Good surface visibility

Definition
Two characteristics of unstable air??
Term
Stratiform clouds, fog, continuous precipitation, smooth air and fair to poor visibility.
Definition
Characteristics of a stable air mass include...?
Term
Actual lapse rate. (Warm air rises when the air above is cooler. The actual lapse rate is the decrease of temp. with altitude, and is therefore a measure of stability.)
Definition
What measurement can be used to determine the stability of the atmosphere?
Term
Warming from below
Definition
What would decrease stability?
Term
A stable layer of air
Definition
What feature is associated with temperature inversion?
Term
An increase in temp. as altitude increases
Definition
A temperature inversion would most likely result in what?
Term
Smooth air, poor visibility, fog or low clouds
Definition
What weather conditions would be expected beneath a low-level temperature inversion layer when humidity is high?
Term
Abbreviated briefing
Definition
Which type of briefing should a pilot request to supplement mass disseminated data?
Term
An outlook briefing
Definition
A weather briefing that is provided when the info requested is 6 or more hours in advance of departure is...?
Term

1. Identify yourself as a pilot

2. Your intended route

3. Your intended destination

4. Whether you are flying VFR or IFR

5. Type of aircraft

6. Departure time and time en route

Definition
When requesting a telephone briefing, you should do what six things?
Term

1. METAR (routine weather report)

2. SPECI (nonroutine weather report)

Definition
What are the two types of reports in weather observation?
Term

As a five-digit group (6 digits if the wind speed is greater than 99 knots). It is appended with the abreviation KT (knots) G=gusty

**EXAMPLE: 11012G18KT would be wind from 110 true at 12 knots with gusts up to 18 knots.**

Definition
How is wind reported?
Term
In statute miles with SM appended to it. EXAMPLE: 2 1/2SM= visibility is 2.5  statute miles
Definition
How is visibility reported?
Term
RA
Definition
What two letter abbreviation stands for rain?
Term
Within 3 digits in hundreds of feet AGL. EXAMPLE: OVC007 means overcast cloud layer at 700 ft AGL.
Definition
How are cloud bases reported?
Term
Rain began at 35 min. past the hour
Definition
What does RAB35 mean on a report?
Term
1000 ft ceiling and/or 3 statute mile visibility
Definition
What are the VFR weather minimums?
Term
Sky clear
Definition
What does SKC stand for in a report?
Term
505 ft
Definition
If terrain elevation is 1295 ft MSL, the base ceiling is 1800 ft, what is the height between ground level and base of ceiling?
Term

WV refers to the wind section. If it is 08021, this means the temp. is 80 degrees and the wind is at 21 knots.

 

TA M7 stands for the temperature and M stands for a temp. below zero. Therefore, TA M7 is -7 degrees celsius. 

Definition
In a PIREP, what would WV 08021 and TA M7 stand for?
Term
Light turbulence from 5500-7200 ft.
Definition
What does TB LGT 055-072 mean?
Term

IC refers to icing conditions. LGT-MDE RIME refers to light to moderate rime.

 

NOTE: Rime is a type of ice. It is water droplets that become suspended in clouds when temperatures are below freezing.


Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_Rime#ixzz1cU1MB35U

Definition
What does IC LGT-MDT RIME stand for?
Term
Gives the forecast of general weather predictions throughout several states or portions of states. It is used for expected en route weather.
Definition
What is an aviation area forecast intended for?
Term
Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories
Definition
Who should you refer to to determine freezing level and areas of probable icing aloft?
Term
Clouds and weather which cover an area greater than 3000 square miles and is significant to VFR operations. This section contains a 12-hour specific forecast.
Definition
What does the section of Area Forecast entitled "VFR CLDS/WX" contain a description of?
Term
SH
Definition
What two letter abbreviation stands for showers?
Term
Cumulonimbus
Definition
The only cloud type forecast in a TAF is...?
Term
Circles
Definition
Depiction charts are an outline of the USA. Reporting stations are marked with little ______?
Term

1.  Open circle~ Clear

2. Solid circle~ Overcast

3. 1/4 Solid Circle~ Scattered

4. 3/4 Solid Circle~ Broken

5. X inside Circle~ Obscured

 

Definition
For weather depiction charts,
if the sky is clear the circle is _____?
If overcast the circle is______?
If scattered the circle is______?
If broken the circle is _______?
Obscured, the circle is_______?
Term
Breaks in overcast clouds
Definition
A solid circle with a white line through it indicates?
Term
[image]
Definition
Cold fronts are depicted with with type of line?
Term
[image]
Definition
Warm fronts are depicted in what type of line?
Term
[image]
Definition
What is the difference between a stationary and occluded front line?
Term

Types of precipitation...

R=rain

RW= rain shower

S=snow

SW= snow shower

Definition
R, RW, S and SW all stand for what?
Term
Visibility is 3 statute miles. Sky cover is broken. There is currently rain and the ceiling is 1200 ft.
Definition

[image]

What are the conditions for this example?

Term
Severe weather watch areas
Definition
What does a heavy dashed line that forms a large box on a radar summary chart refer to?
Term
9900 and less than 5 knots
Definition
When winds are light and variable in reference to Winds Aloft forecast, the coded group and windspeed is?
Term
True direction and knots
Definition
What values are used in Winds Aloft Forecasts?
Term
The wind is 230 degrees true and 39 knots.
Definition
2339 in a Winds Aloft Forecast means...?
Term
200 degrees true at 6 knots. Temperature is 3 degrees celsius.
Definition
What does 2006+03 indicate on a Winds Aloft forecast?
Term
They forecast conditions 12 and 24 hours in the future. Include 2 types of forecasts: low level significant weather, and moderate or greater turbulence areas/freezing levels.
Definition
What are significant weather prognostic charts?
Term
Moderate turbulence
Definition
What does a peaked hat in weather prognostic charts mean?
Term
The altitude....180 translates into 18000 ft.
Definition
180 with a line underneath on a weather prognostic chart means...?
Term
All aircraft for hazardous weather condition
Definition
SIGMETS are issued as a warning to...?
Term
Tornadoes, embedded thunderstorms, hail greater than 3/4" in diameter
Definition
What weather is included in a convective SIGMET?