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ASCP-Chemistry Flash Cards
Contains Clinical Chemistry Reference Ranges, Laboratory Testing, and other information related to Clinical Chemistry
136
Chemistry
04/29/2011

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Cards

Term
IU
Definition
international unit
Term
L
Definition
liter
Term
dL
Definition
deciliter = 0.1 liter
Term
g/dL
Definition
g/dl = gram per deciliter
Term
mg
Definition
mg = milligram
Term
mmol
Definition
mmol = millimole
Term
mEq
Definition
mEq = milliequivalents
Term
Types of monosaccharides, and what they are composed of:
Definition
glucose and fructose (4-8 carbon atoms and a aldehyde or ketone group)
Term
Oligiosaccharides are composed of:
Definition
(2 to 6 molecules of simple sugars linked together)
Term
Disaccharides are composed of:
Definition
(2 monosaccharides)
Term
Glycolysis
Definition
Glucose-->Pyruvate<-->lactate
Term
Glycogenesis
Definition
Glucose-->Glycogen
Term
Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
Definition
Glucose--->pyruvate--->CO2 + H20+ ATP
Term
Pentose Phosphate Pathway/ Hexose Monphosphate Shunt
Definition
Glucose--->ribose + CO2 + NADPH
Term
Uronic Acid Pathway
Definition
Glucose--->Glucuronic Acid
Term
Glycogenolysis
Definition
Glycogen--->Glucose
Term
Gluconeogenesis
Definition
Noncarbohydrate sources--->glucose
Term
What are the other hormones that increase blood glucose levels?
Definition
Epinephrine, human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroxine
Term
Define Glycated hemoglobin:
Definition
The Ketoamine structure where glucose is irreversibly bound to hemoglobin.
Term
Define Glycosylated Hemoglobin:
Definition
The reversible stage where glucose may equilibrate (attach and detach) with the hemoglin molecule.
Term
HLP
Definition
Hyperlipoproteinemia
Term
TG
Definition
Trigycerides
Term
Chol
Definition
Cholesterol
Term
CM
Definition
Chylomicrons
Term
FFA
Definition
Free Fatty Acids
Term
Equation for Cholesterol
Definition
[LDL-C]=[TC]-[HDL-C]-([TG]/5)
Term
Define Lipid:
Definition
Hydrophobic (nonpolar), organic molecules-insoluble in water, but readily soluble in organic solvents.
Term
Define Lipoprotien:
Definition
Complexes of lipids and proteins, act as vehicles for transporting lipids in the aqueous milieu of the circulatory system
Term
What are Fatty Acids, and what do they do?
Definition
carboxylic acids of straight-chain hydrocarbons. They provide energy through β-oxidation.
Term
What makes a Saturated Fat?
Definition
all single bonds between carbons
Term
What makes a Monounsaturated Fat
Definition
One double bond in a chain
Term
What makes a Polyunsaturated fat?
Definition
more than one double bond in the chain
Term
What is an essential fatty acid?
Definition
a Linoleic or Linolenic acid which is two polyunsaturated fatty acids, that must come from dietary sources.
Term
What is the most prevelant fat in the diet?
Definition
Trigylcerides
Term
Fat from animals
Definition
saturated fatty acids, and solid at room temp
Term
Fat from plant sources
Definition
unsaturated fatty acids, liquid even upon refridgeration
Term
Cholestrol is the precursor for:
Definition
steroid hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids.
Term
Where is Cholestrol synthesized
Definition
Liver
Term
Where are phospholipids synthesized
Definition
liver
Term
What are the Fat Soluble Vitamins
Definition
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Term
Lipoprotien function
Definition
transport lipids and facilitate the metabolism of lipids in the circulatory system
Term
Info about Chylomicrons
Definition
Lowest density lipoprotein, and mostly exogenous triglycerides from diet
Term
Info about VLDL
Definition
transports triglycerides synthesized in the liver
Term
Info about Cholesterol
Definition
the major component of LDL
Term
Info about HDL
Definition
high protein content with phospholipids and cholesterol as the major lipid components
Term
What are Apolipoproteins?
Definition
Participate in lipoprotein metabolism as enzyme activators, enzyme inhibitors, or binding sites for cellular receptors
Term
apo AI and apo AII
Definition
HDL
Term
apo B-48
Definition
Chylomicrons
Term
apo B-100
Definition
VLD, IDL, and LDL
Term
apo CI, CII, and CIII
Definition
chylomicrons and VLDL
Term
apo E
Definition
VLD and LDL
Term
Lipoprotein(a)
Definition
a variant of LDL in which a molecule of the protein apo(a) is bound to apo B-199
Term
Albumin: LP name and Predominant Lipid
Definition
No name, FFA
Term
Alpha-1 (HDL): LP name and predominant lipid
Definition
Alpha, phospholipids
Term
Alpha-2 (VLDL): LP name and Predominant Lipid
Definition
Trigylcerides
Term
Alpha-2/Beta Bridge (IDL): LP name and Predominat Lipid
Definition
Floating Beta, Cholesterol and Trigycerides
Term
Beta: LP name and predominant lipid
Definition
Beta, Cholesterol
Term
Gamma: LP name, and predominant lipid
Definition
no name, Chylomicrons
Term
Specimen Requirements for Lipid Testing:
Definition
1. Patient Fasting 2. Heparin plasma for Trigyceride assays 3.Disodium EDTA for Lipoprotein Electrophoresis 4. Serum OK if fresh, unhemolyzed, and immediately sperated from cells. Keep cold, and don't freeze. 5. mix well
Term
What happens to lipids after Heart attack?
Definition
all blood lipid leveles decrease
Term
what happens to lipids during Heparin therapy?
Definition
falsely decreased triglyceride levels
Term
what happens to lipids with alchohol ingestion or abuse?
Definition
Increase blood FFA level, increase VLDL production, increase blood Triglyceride level, and increase HDL
Term
What happens to lipids with birth control or pregnancy?
Definition
decrease in cholesterol (LDL) and FFA, and increase in Triglycerides
Term
What happens to lipids with steroids, beta blockers?
Definition
increase in serum trigylcerides (VLDL)
Term
What happens to lipids in a bacteria-contaminated specimen?
Definition
Smudging of the pattern, plus the Beta and Pre-Beta LPs migrate fater than normal towards the anode
Term
Hypo-Beta Lipoproteinemia
Definition
low serum cholesterol because of low LDL, cuase by underproduction of Apo-B.
Term
Abetalipoproteinemia
Definition
no LDL= low cholesterol levels
Term
Hypo-Alpha-Lipoproteinemia
Definition
underproduction of Apo-A, very low HDL levels, possible other lipids high
Term
Tangier Disease
Definition
no HDL, due to inability to produce Apo-A
Term
Type I HLP
Definition
lack of Lipoprotein Lipase, so CM can't be cleared from blood. Hi levels of CHOL and TG. Creamy layer of CM at the top.
Term
Type II-A HLP
Definition
caused by increase in LDL. Blood CHOL high, but TG normal. Serum is clear.
Term
Type II-B HLP
Definition
increase in LDL and VLDL. High CHOL and TG. Specium is faintly turbid due to the TG
Term
Type III HLP:
Definition
Floating Beta Band due to production of an abnormal lipoprotein (IDL). High CHOL and TG. Slighly turbid, and may or may not have CM present
Term
Type IV HLP:
Definition
most common, high TG, turbid serum
Term
Type V HLP
Definition
High TG and CHOL, turbid, with a creamy layer of CM at the top
Term

Fasting Blood Glucouse (FBS)

 

[Reference Range]

Definition

Serum:  70-110 mg/dL

CSF: 40-70 mg/DL

(or 2/3 of blood level)

Term

Hbg A1-C

 

[Reference Range]

Definition
5.0-9.0%
Term

OGTT (adult, 75 g load)

 

[Reference Range]

Definition

Fasting:  70-110 mg/dL

1/2 Hour:  Less than 170 mg/dL

1 Hour:  Less than 170 mg/dL

2 Hr:  Under 110 mg/dL

3 Hr:  Fasting level

4, 5 Hr:  Fasting level

Term

Serum Osmolality

 

[Reference Range]

 

Definition
289-308 mOsm/Kg
Term

Urine, 24- Hour Osmality

 

[Reference Range]

 

Definition

300-900 mOsm/Kg

 

 

Term

Urine/Serum Osmolality Ratio

 

[Refence Range]

Definition

Random 1.0-3.0

 

Should be greater than 3.0 after 12 hours fluid restriction

Term

Adult Billirubin Values

 

[refence ranges]

Definition

Total:  0.2-1.0 mg/dL

 

Direct:  0.0-0.4 mg/dL

Term

Neonatal Bilirubin Values- 

(Total=Indirect Bilirubin)

 

 

[Refence range]

Definition

Cord Blood:  less than 4.5 mg/dL

3 Day: Less than 7.0 mg/dL

5 Day: Less than 12.0 mg/dL

7 Day: Less than 7.0 mg/dL

Term

Sodium

(mEq/L=mMol/L)

 

[Reference Range]

Definition
Adult Plasma:  136-146 mMol/L
Term

Potassium

(mEq/L=mMol/L)

 

[Reference Range]

Definition

Adult: 3.5-5.1 mMol/L

Newborn: 3.7-5.9 mMol/L

Term

Chloride

 

[Reference range]

Definition

Plasma:  98-106 mMol/L

Sweat:  up to 35 mMol/L

Term

Total CO2

 

[reference range]

Definition

Venous:  23-30 mMol/L

Arterial: 22-29 mMol/L

Capillary:  22-20 mMol/L

Term

Bicarbonate

 

[reference range]

 

Definition

Venous: 22-20 mMol/L

Arterial: 21-28 mMol/L

Capillary:  21-28 mMol/L

Term

Plasma Lactic Acid (lactate)

 

[reference range]

 

Definition
0.5-1.9 mMol/L
Term

Blood pH

 

[reference range]

Definition

Venous:  7.32-7.42

Arterial:  7.35-7.45

Capillary:  7.35-7.45

Term

Anion Gap

 

 

Definition
12 mMol/L  (+/- 5 method)
Term

Serum Calcium

 

[reference range]

Definition

Children values slightly higher than adults

 

Total:  8.4-10.2 mg/dL

2.1-2.6 mMol/L

 

Ionized:  1.10-1.35 mMol/L

 

 

Term

Serum Inorganic Phosphorous

 

[reference range]

Definition

Adults:  3.0-4.5 mg/dL


Children:  4.5-6.5 mg/dL

 

Term

Serum Magnesium

 

[reference range]

Definition

1.6-2.3 mg/dL

 

0.65-1.05 mMol/L

Term

Serum Iron

 

[reference range]

Definition

Males:  50-170 ug/dL

 

Females:  30-160 ug/dL

Term

Serum TIBC

 

[reference range]

Definition
250-450 ug/dL
Term

Transferrin Iron Saturation

 

[reference range]

Definition
25%-55%
Term

Plasma Ammonia Nitrogen

 

[reference range]

Definition
7-27 uMol/L
Term

BUN

 

[reference range]

Definition
7-18 mg/dL
Term

Urea

 

[reference range]

Definition
15-38 mg/dL
Term

Serum/Plasma Creatinine

 

[reference range]

Definition

Males:  0.6-1.2 mg/dL

 

Females:  0.5-1.1 mg/dL

Term

24-Hour Urine Creatinine

 

[reference range]

Definition

Males:  800-1800 mg/Day

 

Females:  600-1600 mg/day

Term

Creatinine Clearance (GFR)

 

[reference range]

Definition

Males:  97-137  mL/min

 

Females:  88-128 mL/min

Term

Uric Acid

(serum/plasma)

 

[reference range]

Definition

Males:  3.5-7.2 mg/dL

 

Females:  2.6-6.0 mg/dL

 

Term

Haptoglobin

 

[reference range]

Definition

40-180 mg/dL

 

(as Hgb. binding capacity)

Term

Total Protein

 

[reference range]

 

Definition

6.0-8.2 g/dL

 

 

Term

Albumin

 

[reference range]

Definition
3.5-5.2 g/dL
Term

A/G Ratio

 

[reference range]

Definition
1.1-1.8
Term

CSF Protein

 

[reference range]

Definition
15-50 mg/dL
Term

Urine Protein

 

[reference range]

Definition

50-150 mg/day

 

or

 

< 10 mg/dL random

Term

Total Cholestrol

 

[reference range]

Definition

Optimal:  <200 mg/dL

Borderline:  200-239 mg/dL

High Risk:  > 240 mg/dL

Term

LDL- Cholestrol

 

[reference range]

Definition

Optimal:  <100 mg/dL

Above Optimal:  100-129

Borderline:  130-159

High Risk:  160-189

Very High: >190 mg/dL

Term

HDL-Cholestrol

 

[reference range]

Definition

Optimal:  >40 mg/dL

High Risk:  <40 mg/dL

Term

Triglycerides

 

[reference range]

Definition

Optimal:  <150 mg/dL

Borderline:  150-199

High Risk:  200-499

Verh High:  500 mg/dL and above

 

Term

Total/HDL Cholestrol Ratio

 

[reference range]

Definition
Average risk:  5.0
Term

LDL/HDL Cholestrol Ratio

 

[reference range]

Definition
Average Risk:  3.5
Term

Amniotic Fluid L/S Ratio

 

(extremely dependent on method)

 

[reference range]

Definition

Mature:  >2.0 with PG+

Borderline:  1.6-2.0 with PG-

Immature:  <1.5 with PG-

Term

Total T4

 

[reference range]

Definition
4.5-12.5 ug/dL
Term

Total T3

 

[reference range]

Definition
120-195 ng/dL
Term

T3-Uptake

 

[reference range]

Definition
25-37 %
Term

TBG Saturation

 

[reference range]

Definition
25-37%
Term

TSH

 

[reference range]

Definition
0.4-6.0 uU/mL
Term

FTI

 

(31% method)

 

[reference range]

Definition
3.6-14.9
Term

Serum or Plasma Glucose

 

(kids and adults)

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below 40 mg/dL=  Brain damage

 

Above 450 mg/Dl=   Diabetic Coma

Term

Plasma Glucose

 

(newborn infant-6 weeks)

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below 30 mg/dL=  brain damage

 

Above 300 mg/dL=   diabetic coma

Term

Serum Total Bilirubin

 

(newborn-6 months of age)

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Above 20.0 mg/dL

 

May Require an Emergency Exchange Transfusion

 

 

Term

Potassium

 

(children and adults- serum or plasma)

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below 3.0 mMol/L=  Tetany, cardiac fibrillation

 

Above 6.1 mMol/L=  arrhythmias, cardiac failure  (evaluate for hemolysis)

Term

Potassium

 

(newborn- serum or plasma)

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below 3.0 mMol/L=  Tetany, Cardiac Fibrillation

 

Above 6.6 mMol/L=  Arrythmias, cardiac failure (check for hemolysis)

Term

Sodium 

 

(serum or plasma)

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below 120 mMol/L=  Vascular collapse, heart failure

 

Above 170 mMol/L=  Severe hypertension, stroke, heart failure

Term

Serum Bicarbonate (or Total CO2)

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below 10 mMol/L=  Severe Metabolic ACIDosis

 

Above 55 mMol/L= Severe Metabolic ALKALosis

 

Term

Blood pH

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below pH 7.20=  Severe ACIDosis

 

Above 7.6=  Severe ALKALosis

Term

Serum or Plasma Calcium

 

(Total)

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below 6.0 mg/dL=  Tetany, convulsions  (check for wrong anticoagulants)

Above 13.0 mg/dL=  Coma

Term

Serum, Plasma, or Whole Blood Calcium (Ionized)

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below 0.79 mMol/L=  Tetany, convulsions (check for wrong anticoagulants)

 

Above 1.57 mMol/L=  Coma

Term

Serum or Plasma Inorganic Phosphorous

 

[Critical Value]

Definition
Below 1.0 mg/dL=  Acidosis, seizures
Term

Serum or Plasma Magnesium

 

[Critical Value]

Definition

Below 1.0 mg/dL=  Tetany, convulsions (check for wrong anticoagulants)

 

Above 9.0 mg/dL=  Coma (evaluate for hemolysis)

Note:  Contamination from powdered gloves (talk is Mg++ and/or Ca++ Stearate) will cause drastic elevations in Calcium and/or Magnesium)

Term

Serum or Plasma Lithium

 

[Critical Value]

Definition
Above 1.5 mMol/L=  Coma