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APUSH question from Henretta America's History
161
History
02/25/2013

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Term
A key difference between the presidencies of Hoover and Roosevelt lay in
Definition
their different levels of charisma and political savvy.Roosevelt’s personal charm and his ability to capture voter popularity made him the more successful president. In addition, Roosevelt’s call for experimentation made his terms in office different from that of Hoover’s, despite similarities in the two men’s fundamental principles and their shared firm belief in maintaining the nation’s basic institutional structure.
Term
As he began formulating his New Deal programs, Roosevelt
Definition
relied on a large number of prominent advisers.
For policy formulation, Roosevelt turned to his cabinet, which included Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, Frances Perkins at Labor, and Henry A. Wallace at Agriculture. In addition, Roosevelt was just as likely to turn to advisors and administrators scattered throughout the New Deal bureaucracy. Though they were experimental, the New Deal programs were not striking blindly into the future.
Term
The Agricultural Adjustment Act led to all of the following except the
Definition
purchase of land for black tenant farmers.

The AAA reduced farm output to raise prices, gave cash subsidies to some farmers, and indirectly fostered further concentration of land into the hands of large landholders. Black tenant farmers actually lost farmland because the major landholders usually cut back production on their sharecropped land first, displacing as many as 200,000 black tenant farmers.
Term
Legislation in the first hundred days of the New Deal
Definition
began large-scale public works projects.

The PWA created large-scale works projects, while other measures regulated banks more strictly and paid farmers to take farmland out of production. The majority of the increased government spending went to indirect relief, through price controls and work programs.
Term
The businessmen and politicians of the Liberty League
Definition
attacked Roosevelt for advocating “socialist” policies.

Business leaders and conservative Democrats became hostile to Roosevelt, considering the “reckless spending” programs of the New Deal to be socialist and wasteful. Instead of supporting the programs, the Liberty League lobbied against them.
Term
Which of the following men did not put pressure on Roosevelt from the left?
Definition
Alfred Landon

Townsend, Coughlin, and Long all called for more radical measures to deal with the depression. Although sympathetic to the New Deal in some ways, Landon ran against Roosevelt in the 1936 election on the more conservative Republican ticket.
Term
The Wagner Act forbade employers to
Definition
fire workers for union activities.

The Wagner Act made illegal the practice of firing workers for union activities, but it did not mandate that employers hire only union workers. It did not guarantee collective bargaining rights for agricultural or domestic workers or prevent big business from continuing to exert powerful political pressure.
Term
The Social Security Act included
Definition
old-age pensions.

The main creation of the act was a national old-age pension plan, which did not extend to all workers. Although Social Security did not provide for national health insurance, it did provide special assistance for the disabled
Term
The Works Progress Administration
Definition
reached only about one-third of the nation’s unemployed.

Although the WPA was the main federal relief agency for the rest of the depression, it failed to bring full employment, and Roosevelt spent money on such programs only reluctantly.
Term
Roosevelt’s attempt to alter the Supreme Court
Definition
suggested to many critics that he was sidestepping the Constitution.

When Roosevelt tried to increase the number of justices in order to make the Court more favorable to the New Deal, his opposition criticized him for undermining the separation of powers. Roosevelt’s efforts to “pack” the Court reflected badly on his administration. Despite the scandal and the Court’s seeming hostility to the New Deal, Roosevelt was later able to appoint justices sympathetic to his philosophy, and the Court upheld many key elements of the New Deal.
Term
Under the New Deal, the government’s relationship to organized labor
Definition
encouraged a dramatic growth in the size and influence of unions.

The Wagner Act guaranteed certain fundamental rights for labor unions, granting them legitimacy, thereby accelerating the expansion of union activity in many industries. However, the labor movement did not become the dominant force in the United States that it was in Europe, and unions never enrolled a majority of American wage workers.
Term
The New Deal affected women in all of the following ways except
Definition
legislation was passed guaranteeing gender equality in the workforce.

New Deal measures generally enhanced women’s welfare, but few addressed their needs and concerns directly. The Roosevelt administration placed an unprecedented number of women in top positions and indirectly encouraged the formation of informal women’s political networks.
Term
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
Definition
promoted self-government for reservation Indians.

Native Americans continued to live on reservations, where they faced greater levels of poverty than any other ethnic group. The act allowed more self-government for reservations and was part of a new government policy, which abandoned attempts to force Native Americans to assimilate.
Term
Which of the following was not a New Deal conservation-related project?
Definition
Rural Electrification Administration

he Blue Ridge Parkway, the Appalachian Trail, and the San Francisco Zoo all came from government projects to preserve parts of the nation’s natural heritage. The Rural Electrification Administration’s main goal was to bring the modern convenience of electric power to rural areas that had previously gone without power. It was a New Deal project, but its aim was modernization, not conservation.
Term
The purpose of the documentary art form was to
Definition
provoke an emotional response to the real-life situation depicted.

The documentary impulse was a broad artistic trend that sought to provoke an emotional response from the viewer by depicting actual facts and events. Instead of escaping the harsh reality of the depression, documentary makers actively sought out the poor and homeless as subjects
Term
In the early 1920s, the Republican agenda created a new era of
Definition
close business-government cooperation beginning with Harding’s election.

In the 1920 presidential election, the Republicans, led by Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge, promised a return to “normalcy,” which meant close business-government cooperation and conservative cultural values as opposed to the Democratic platform of U.S. participation in the League of Nations and a continuation of Wilson’s progressivism. Harding and Coolidge won in a landslide, marking the solidification of a Republican dominance that would last until 1932.
Term
The Progressive Party of 1924 nominated
Definition
Robert La Follette.

Robert La Follette attempted to resuscitate the Progressive Party through his presidential run in 1924. He came in third in the election with 4.9 million votes, behind John W. Davis (Democrats) who tallied 8.4 million votes, and the winner, Calvin Coolidge (Republicans), who racked up 15.7 million votes.
Term
In the 1920s, Americans’ general attitude toward reform saw them
Definition
become unenthusiastic about more taxes or government bureaucracy.


At a time of prosperity and in reaction to government intervention during World War I, the American public in general shied away from continued federal reform efforts. Some local reform activism continued, but on the national level the progressive impulse had declined by the post–World War I period.
Term
By 1920, the United States counted 105 million people, having added, in the previous four decades
Definition
23 million immigrants from around the world.

Many native-born Protestants saw unrestricted immigration as the cause of cultural and religious disputes. A nation of 105 million people had added more than 23 million immigrants over the previous four decades. The newcomers included many Catholics and Jews from southern and eastern Europe.
Term
Poverty in the 1920s
Definition
prevented many people from participating fully in commercial mass culture.

Since many families could barely manage a decent standard of living with their income, they lacked the resources to purchase many of the widely available consumer goods such as radios, refrigerators, and electric vacuums. Poor minority families were particularly isolated from the new consumption ethic. Credit was actually increasingly available
Term
Advertising in the 1920s promoted all of the following images except
Definition
environmental awareness.

Advertisers preyed on psychological insecurities and social aspirations by suggesting that their products reflected good taste, success, and sophistication. Marketing products as being “environmentally friendly” is a much more recent phenomenon.
Term
By 1930, the American film industry had all of the following characteristics except
Definition
decades of experience making “talkies.”

Motion pictures with sound first appeared in 1927, but within a few years the industry had made the transition from silents to “talkies.” Hollywood and its big movie stars were famous and influential, at home and abroad.
Term
All of the following statements are accurate regarding rural-urban shifts in population during the 1920s except
Definition
tensions decreased between city dwellers and rural folk.

Tensions between city dwellers and rural folk escalated sharply during the 1920s. For the first time in the nation’s history, more people lived in urban areas than in rural areas. During the 1920s, about 6 million Americans left farms for the cities. By 1929, ninety-three cities had populations over 100,000. New York City’s population exceeded 7 million and the population of Los Angeles exploded to 1.2 million.
Term
U.S. immigration policy in the 1920s
Definition
further limited immigration from Eastern Europe and Asia.

The National Origins Act, among others, imposed new, stricter quotas which targeted immigration from southeastern Europe, Russia, and Asia, while the loophole allowing virtually unrestricted immigration from the Western Hemisphere remained open until the 1930s.
Term
Protestant fundamentalists and modernists clashed primarily over the issue of
Definition
the relationship between religion and science.

The Scopes “monkey trial” was the most famous clash between fundamentalists and modernists over the relationship between religion and the scientific theory of evolution. The presence of religion in public schools, the illegality of abortion, and the continued existence of blue laws remained largely unquestioned in the 1920s.
Term
In his campaign for the presidency, New York governor Al Smith
Definition
represented traditional, rural America.

As a Catholic at a time when many nativists considered Catholic and Jewish immigrants to be un-American, Al Smith met opposition from both Democrats and Republicans. The Democratic Party in 1924 was split between the urban machines and its rural wing; Smith’s urban, working-class, Tammany Hall background placed him in the urban camp.
Term
The stock market crash was caused by
Definition
panic selling of stocks.

A decline in stock values created a panic that led to a self-perpetuating spiral downward. Overproduction and overinflation of stock values made the market vulnerable, but it was the psychology of panic that made the financial readjustment so devastating. Widespread bank failures were the result and not the cause of the Great Crash.
Term
Herbert Hoover’s original response to the depression was
Definition
optimism in the nation’s ability to recover quickly.

Hoover proved to be overly optimistic in the ability of the economic system, which was led by big business, to recover quickly. Thus he used little public funding at first and relied on industry leaders for cooperation in stimulating recovery.
Term
Under President Roosevelt, the United States would create a modern
Definition
In 1932, voters would replace Herbert Hoover with Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. Republicans, who had held solid majorities in both houses of Congress as late as 1931, found themselves swept out of power. Faced with the cataclysm of the Great Depression, Americans transformed their government and created a modern welfare state.
Term
In the 1890s, the U.S. government began the process of
Definition
building a strong navy

In the 1890s, the United States expanded its navy in response to the desire for overseas colonies and the production of Alfred Mahan’s The Influence of Seapower upon History.
Term
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in the city of
Definition
Sarajevo.

In June 1914, in the town of Sarajevo, Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. This was the spark that ignited World War I
Term
One of the most deadly new forms of military technology used during World War I was the
Definition
machine gun.

New technology, some of it devised in the United States, made warfare deadlier than ever before. Every soldier carried a long-range, high-velocity rifle that could hit a target at 1,000 yards—a vast technical advancement over the 300-yard range of the rifle-musket used in the U.S. Civil War. The machine gun was even more deadly.
Term
A racialized idea behind the ideology of expansionism was
Definition
Anglo-Saxonism.

Anglo-Saxonism advocated the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon “race.” As early as 1885, in his popular book Our Country, Congregationalist minister Josiah Strong urged Protestants to proselytize overseas. He predicted that American “Anglo-Saxons”—“the representative, let us hope, of the largest liberty, the purest Christianity, the highest civilization, having developed particularly aggressive traits calculated to impress its institutions upon mankind”—would “spread itself over the earth.”
Term
Americans were concerned about trade with so-called “backward” countries because
Definition
with Europeans colonizing many preindustrial nations, U.S. trade interests were threatened.

The United States worried about future trade with nonindustrial nations because European states were rapidly colonizing them, a fact that threatened to shut out U.S. interests much as it did in China.
Term
In response to initial American criticism of its actions in Cuba, the Spanish government
Definition
agreed to grant a measure of self-rule to the Cubans.

When pressured by the United States, Spain backed off its most abusive policies and offered a certain amount of self-rule to the Cubans––but not independence. It did not increase military forces; in fact, it cut back on its military presence. It did not establish a military dictatorship, and the Maine was destroyed in an accident.
Term
Anti-imperialists in the United States were organized in opposition to the Treaty of Paris, which annexed
Definition
The Philippians

The Treaty of Paris ceded the Philippines to the United States for $20 million and was the prime target of opposition by the anti-imperialists. Hawaii and Puerto Rico were annexed as well but not through the Treaty of Paris, and there was not much opposition. The Teller Amendment prevented the annexation of Cuba, which was guaranteed eventual independence.
Term
In 1901, the Supreme Court ruled that in the case of newly acquired possessions,
Definition
citizenship was not automatically extended to the inhabitants.

In 1901, the Supreme Court rejected the claim that inhabitants of overseas territories became automatic U.S. citizens or that the Constitution applied to them. Instead, the Court left it up to Congress to decide how to deal with each territory.
Term
The American war that began in 1899 in the Philippines was marked by
Definition
atrocities on both sides and thousands of deaths.

The war in the Philippines was fought with great ferocity against the Filipinos; the United States adopted many of the tactics that it had condemned in Cuba. The victory was not quick, but the rebellion was eventually subdued. The Spanish fleet had been destroyed in 1898, before this war began.
Term
The Spanish-American War
Definition
gave the United States the opportunity to expand overseas.

The American war with Spain offered the United States the opportunity to pursue an overseas empire, but it was not begun for that purpose. Gaining the Philippines only became a goal later on. There was no pressure from business interests to start a war; in fact, many of those individuals were fearful of a war.
Term
The country that posed the greatest threat to American power in the Pacific was
Definition
Japan.

Japan was the greatest potential threat to American power in the Pacific as it was expanding its influence in the East at the expense of China and Russia. The United States had friendly relations with Britain from Roosevelt’s term on, and Germany had little influence in Asia.
Term
All of the following were threats to the stability of Europe in the early twentieth century except
Definition
the United States.

Germany’s growing power upset a century-old European balance, while the decline of the Ottoman Empire disrupted the Balkans, and the Triple Entente completed a bipolarization of European power politics. The United States remained relatively isolated from Europe during the early twentieth century, preferring to focus on Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific.
Term
In order to construct a canal in Panama, President Roosevelt had to
Definition
support Panama in its rebellion against Colombia.

Roosevelt was determined to support Panamanian independence from Colombia because the Colombians had refused to allow the United States a lease on land for a canal. The French had long ago dismissed their canal project, and no treaty had been signed with Nicaragua for a canal. The United States was to retain control of the canal zone in perpetuity.
Term
Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Definition
translated into an unrestricted American right to regulate Caribbean affairs.

Roosevelt justified American dominance in the Caribbean by saying that it was incumbent on the civilized powers to insist on the proper policing of the world and the maintenance of the balance of power. The European state that could most readily threaten American hegemony was Great Britain. Although there was no formal alliance, Anglo-American friendship was on such a firm footing that each nation assumed they would not fight. In any case, Britain was preoccupied with rising German power and needed the United States to keep order in the Western Hemisphere.
Term
The open-door policy was intended to
Definition
prevent Japan and the European powers from shutting the United States out of China

The open door was aimed at keeping China open to all trade, not limiting it to those powers that controlled spheres of influence. It may have limited Japanese expansion indirectly, but that was not its main purpose, and it had nothing to do with Latin American policy or the Moroccan crisis that was settled at the Algeciras Conference.
Term
Which of the following was NOT an idea included in Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points?
Definition
a declaration of racial equality

Wilson’s Fourteen Points contained no mention of racial equality. While the Japanese delegation at Versailles proposed a declaration that all races be treated equally, the Allies rejected it.
Term
Civil service reform became an important issue after President Garfield
Definition
was assassinated.

Charles Guiteau’s real motivation for killing Garfield was uncertain, but it was blamed on the spoils system
Term
President Garfield’s assassination was blamed on
Definition
the negative impact of the spoils system.

After Garfield was killed by Charles Guiteau, his death was blamed on the corrupt spoils system that left so many disgruntled office seekers. Civil service reform was carried out after Garfield’s death, and southern Redeemer politicians carried out their campaign against the Republican Party in the South but not by killing the president.
Term
Which of the following racist parts of southern state governments was struck down by the Supreme Court in the late 1890s?
Definition
grandfather clause

Louisiana’s grandfather clause, which denied the vote to any man whose grandfather, in slavery days, had been unable to vote, was struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court. But in Williams v. Mississippi (1898), the Court allowed poll taxes and literacy tests to stand. By 1908, every southern state had adopted such measures. The Court did not outlaw lynching.
Term
Jacob Coxey organized a
Definition
peaceful march on Washington, DC.

In the summer of 1894, a protest led by radical reformer Jacob Coxey of Ohio proposed that the U.S. government hire the unemployed to fix the nation’s roads. In 1894, he organized jobless men to carry out a peaceful march to Washington to appeal for the program.
Term
By the 1890s, the position of the Republican Party on racial issues was to
Definition
build white support and leave blacks to their fate.

By the 1890s, the Republican agenda to provide legal and military protection to black voters facing intimidation and terrorism in the South had been defeated; the black cause had been abandoned. However, the Republicans did not support segregation either.
Term
Republicans finally gained control of both Houses of Congress and the presidency in the year
Definition
1888.

In 1888, after a decade of divided government, Republicans gained control of both Congress and the White House. They pursued an ambitious agenda that they believed would meet the needs of a modernizing nation, while seeking to preserve the legacy of Union victory.
Term
In the South, Democrats tended to be
Definition
white native-born Protestants

Southern, native-born Protestant whites were most likely to be Democratic, in opposition to the Republican Party composed mainly of northern, native-born Protestant whites and southern blacks. Northern Democrats included many white foreign-born and native-born Catholics.
Term
Which of the following men did not serve as a U.S. president between 1876 and 1892?
Definition
William McKinley

The presidents of this era were Rutherford B. Hayes, James Garfield, Chester Arthur, Grover Cleveland, and Benjamin Harrison. They are often remembered as colorless and ineffective. But they had limited room to maneuver in a period of extremely tight competition. William McKinley was elected in 1896.
Term
Reform-minded Republicans, mostly from New York and Massachusetts, became known as
Definition
Mugwumps.

In 1884, a group of liberal Republicans left the Republican Party due to the corruption of its presidential candidate, James G. Blaine. Mostly from New York and Massachusetts, these reform Republicans became known as Mugwumps—a derisive bit of contemporary slang, supposedly of Indian origin, referring to pompous or self-important persons.
Term
The literacy test in the South was motivated by
Definition
the Populist’s threat to one-party rule

The Populist’s threat to unite poor whites and blacks against the one-party rule of the Democrats motivated the adoption of literacy tests to prevent blacks from voting. Although blacks did support Republicans, they were not a threat to Democratic rule. Electoral fraud was used as an excuse for literacy tests but was not the real reason behind them. Poor, illiterate whites were prevented from voting at times, but the grandfather clauses often excluded them, and they were not the target of the new laws.
Term
The South became a fully segregated society
Definition
. after the defeat of Populism.

The South became fully segregated by law during the 1890s, after the defeat of the Populists and their attempt to promote biracial, multiparty politics. The Redeemers did not institute segregation or disfranchisement even after the Republicans in the North abandoned southern blacks. Following the War, the Reconstruction policies of Republicans had prevented legal segregation.
Term
All of the following were aspects of the Populist reform agenda except
Definition
the free coinage of gold.

The Omaha platform called for an income tax, a subtreasury system, and government ownership of the railroads but backed free coinage of silver, not of gold, as the United States was already on the gold standard.
Term
Populists saw farmers and laborers as being
Definition
part of a single producer class.

Populists saw farmers and laborers as a producer class, allied against the forces of monopoly. Therefore, labor support was an important part of the Populist’s goals.
Term
In the 1896 election, Republicans
Definition
attacked free silver as being dangerous to the social order.

Republicans sought to equate free silver with revolution and anarchy in order to defeat Bryan and the Democrats. They did not back free coinage of silver, which was inflationary, and they did not adopt any Populist policies for an activist government.
Term
Free coinage of silver was intended to
Definition
increase the money supply.

Free coinage of silver was an inflationary measure designed to increase the money supply. Technically, it would end the gold standard by going to a bimetallic standard, but gold would still be used to back the nation’s currency. It did not benefit wage earners because it caused inflation, and industrialists were opposed to free silver.
Term
The great commercial cities had attracted all the following kinds of industry except
Definition
steel mills.

The older commercial cities were generally home to small-scale manufacturing or textiles as in New York City. Steel mills were built in industrial cities with access to coal and iron ore and often dominated those towns, such as Aliquippa, Pennsylvania.
Term
Chicago surpassed Berlin, Germany, in all of the following except its
Definition
grand public buildings.

Chicago was a city designed around private business and did not have the great public structures as had the German capital of Berlin. However, its infrastructure, sanitation, water supply, and even its public library system were superior to Berlin’s.
Term
In the late nineteenth century, American cities were primarily developed by
Definition
private enterprise.

American cities were almost entirely built by private individuals and companies, leaving only unprofitable enterprises such as sewage systems, street paving, and park building for city government to carry out with public funding.
Term
Perhaps the most important development in the modern city was
Definition
the widespread use of electricity.

Electricity was the driving force of the modern city, powering its transportation systems, its new communications, and eventually its factories. It made modern skyscrapers accessible with its electric elevators, and it illuminated the night with electric light.
Term
By 1900, city reformers continued the process of altering urban landscapes as part of a(n)
Definition
“City Beautiful” movement.

For example, New York’s Central Park before and after the Civil War was designed as a natural retreat from the industrial city, an innovation inspired by the “City Beautiful” movement. This vision of reformers was an attempt to mitigate the density, industrialization, and utilitarian nature of American cities.
Term
All of the following contributed to suburbanization except
Definition
new zoning regulations.

Americans moved to the suburbs to get away from crowding and because they could have homes with better facilities like flush toilets, hot water, and electricity. Mass transit lines linked the suburbs to the cities and made it possible to commute to work. New zoning regulations, however, were scarce and had little impact on the move from the cities.
Term
Which of the following was not part of the Electric City movement?
Definition
Electric lights were dimmer than gas light.

For ordinary citizens, one of the most dramatic urban amenities was electric light. Gas lamps were too dim to brighten streets and public spaces. In the 1870s, as generating technology became commercially viable, the first use of electricity was for better urban lighting. Electric streetlights soon replaced gaslight on city streets across the country. Electric lighting quickly entered the American home, thanks to Thomas Edison’s invention of a serviceable incandescent bulb in 1879.
Term
The social geography of the suburbs was in large part determined by
Definition
class structures.

Where one lived in the suburbs tended to mirror class positio—the wealthier lived farthest from the city center, the poorest closest to work. Although natural landscape and some planning went into the construction of suburbs, these factors did not determine who lived where. Ethnic minorities tended to live in urban neighborhoods rather than in the suburbs.
Term
The biggest ethnic group in Boston was the
Definition
Irish.

The explosive growth of America’s urban population made cities a world of newcomers, including millions of immigrants from overseas. The biggest ethnic group in Boston was the Irish; in Minneapolis, Swedes; in most other northern cities, Germans.
Term
A mob of whites in 1906 attacked the black community in which of the following cities?
Definition
Atlanta

One of the most virulent riots occurred in Atlanta in 1906, fueled by a nasty political campaign that generated sensational, false charges of “negro crime.” Roaming mobs attacked black Atlantans, even invading middle-class black neighborhoods. The rioters killed at least twenty-four blacks and wounded over a hundred.
Term
In urban areas, African Americans experienced all of the following except
Definition
labor unions

In response to pervasive economic discrimination that periodically took the form of race riots, blacks in northern urban centers turned to personal service and domestic employment for survival. They did not create significant labor unions.
Term
All of the following are accurate regarding life in tenements except
Definition
tenements in New York were all torn down in 1910.

As urban land values climbed, speculators tore down older houses that had been vacated by middle-class families moving to the suburbs. In their place, they erected five- or six-story tenements, buildings that housed twenty or more families in cramped, airless apartments. African Americans often suffered most. Some reformers called for model tenements financed by public-spirited citizens.
Term
Wealthy philanthropists in the nineteenth century provided money to establish all of the following except
Definition
amusement parks.

Wealthy philanthropists such as Andrew Carnegie gave money for libraries, symphonies, and art museums and attempted to uplift society through high culture. Amusement parks were designed to make a profit by entertaining the urban masses and were not a philanthropic venture.
Term
America’s greatest amusement park in around 1900 was
Definition
Expansive amusement parks appeared around 1900, most famously at New York’s Coney Island. These parks had their origins in World’s Fairs, whose free educational exhibits proved less popular than their paid entertainment areas.
Term
City politics tended to
Definition
integrate immigrants into urban society.

Ward politics as practiced in the big cities served an integrating function by giving immigrants a voice in government in exchange for their votes. In so doing, ethnic communities were involved in rather than isolated from urban culture, and immigrants were granted some power over public policy. Immigrants usually settled in ethnic communities on their own, not at the urging of politicians.
Term
Until the 1870s, most amateur baseball players were clerks and
Definition
white-collar workers.

Until the 1870s, most amateur players were clerks and white-collar workers, who had leisure and the income to pay for uniforms. Business frowned on baseball and other sports as a waste of time, especially for working-class men.
Term
Segregated professional baseball teams for blacks first emerged as early as
Definition
Reconstruction.

Segregated professional baseball teams for blacks emerged as early as Reconstruction, showcasing both athletic talent and race pride. Louisiana’s top team, the New Orleans Pinchbacks, pointedly named themselves after the state’s black Reconstruction governor. By the early 1900s, such teams organized into separate Negro Leagues.
Term
The great powerhouse football team in early U.S. history was
Definition
Yale.

The most controversial sport was college football, which began at elite Ivy League schools during the 1880s. The great powerhouse was the Yale team, whose legendary coach, Walter Camp, went on to become a watch manufacturer. Between 1883 and 1891, under Camp’s direction, Yale scored 4,660 points, while its opponents scored 92.
Term
What pastime captivated the nation in 1890?
Definition
bicycling

A craze for bicycling swept the country; in 1890, at the height of the mania, U.S. manufacturers sold an astonishing 10 million bikes.
Term
All of the following are true about the American pastime of “camping” except
Definition
elites dominated the pastime.

By the turn of the century, “camping” had become a recognized form of fun. As early as 1904, Coronado Beach in California was offering tent rentals for $3 a week. By the 1910s, campgrounds and cottages in many parts of the country catered to a working-class clientele. In an industrial and increasingly urban society, the outdoors became a site of leisure and renewal.
Term
President Theodore Roosevelt in 1908 preserved which of the following major American national parks?
Definition
Grand Canyon

Theodore Roosevelt used these powers to preserve 800,000 acres at Arizona’s Grand Canyon.
Term
Which of the following acts gave American presidents the power to create national monuments?
Definition
Lacey Act
Further preservation was carried out after 1906 through the Lacey Act, which allowed the U.S. president, without congressional approval, to set aside “objects of historic and scientific interest” as national monuments. The act proved to be a mixed blessing for conservation. Monuments received weaker protection than did national parks, and many fell under the authority of the U.S. Forest Service, which permitted logging and grazing.
Term
The main figure in the early environmental movement was
Definition
John Muir.

John Muir, who fell in love with the Yosemite Valley in 1869, was one of the first famous voices of this environmental movement. Muir, an imaginative inventor who grew up on a Wisconsin farm, was a keen observer of nature. Raised in a stern Scots Presbyterian family, he knew much of the Bible by heart and developed a deeply spiritual relationship with the natural world.
Term
The first National Wildlife Refuge was created in 1903 at
Definition
Pelican Island, Florida.

In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt created the first National Wildlife Refuge at Pelican Island, Florida. By the end of his term as president, Roosevelt had signed fifty-one executive orders creating wildlife refuges in twenty territories and states.
Term
John Muir founded which of the following clubs in 1892?
Definition
Sierra Club

In cooperation with his editor at Century magazine, Muir founded the Sierra Club in 1892. The group dedicated itself to exploring and preserving the “mountain regions of the Pacific Coast.
Term
All of the following are accurate regarding early game laws except
Definition
Native Americans were exempt from game laws

Many states passed game laws to protect wildlife and regulate hunting and fishing, redefining these as recreational, rather than subsistence activities. Such laws were often selectively enforced in ways that reflected prevailing racial biases. In New Mexico, the territory’s first game and fish warden chased Indians off the range as part of his duties. In all parts of the country, new game laws triggered controversy over the uses of wildlife.
Term
One of the first places women sought to reform through the WCTU in the late 1800s was the
Definition
saloon.

One of the first places women sought to reform was the saloon. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, founded in 1874, spread rapidly after 1879, when Frances Willard became its leader. It became the leading organization advocating prohibition of liquor.
Term
Which of the following parties sought to ban alcohol in the United States?
Definition
Prohibition Party

A new political party, the Prohibition Party, exercised considerable clout in the 1880s. Women worked in the party as stump speakers, convention delegates, and even candidates for local office.
Term
In what part of the country did suffragists win two crucial victories in the late 1800s?
Definition
. Far West

Suffragists won two victories in the West: Colorado in 1893 and Idaho in 1896. Movement leaders were discouraged by a long string of state-level defeats in the following decade, and by the continued refusal of Congress to take up a constitutional amendment for women’s voting rights.
Term
A cattle-dealer who built a stock yard company based on vertical integration was
Definition
Gustavus F. Swift.

Gustavus F. Swift was a cattle dealer in Chicago who invented the refrigerator car. This innovation allowed him to take advantage of the extensive infrastructure of railroad lines and expand his perishable meatpacking business to a national scale.
Term
John D. Rockefeller pioneered a business strategy that became known as
Definition
horizontal integration.

Rockefeller pioneered the strategy that became known as horizontal integration. He pressured competitors through predatory pricing, but when he had driven them to failure, he invited rivals to merge their companies into his conglomerate. Most accepted the offer, often because they had no choice.
Term
By 1900, America’s largest one hundred companies controlled
Definition
one-third of the nation’s productive capacity.

The one hundred largest companies in the United States controlled one-third of the nation’s productive capacity by 1900. Familiar firms, such as DuPont, Eastman Kodak, and Singer Sewing Machine, had assumed dominant places in their respective industries.
Term
How many immigrants came to the United States between the Civil War and World War I?
Definition
25 million

Between the mid-1860s and World War I, approximately 25 million immigrants entered the United States. They formed the backbone of the working-class industrial workforce, as well as the labor movement.
Term
What role did national advertising play in developing American industry in the 1890s?
Definition
It molded demand for new standardized products.

By 1900, American companies such as Montgomery Ward, Sears, Roebuck, and Woolworth’s were spending millions of dollars a year in hopes of molding public demands for their new standardized (as opposed to locally made) products. Local shop owners put up stiff resistance, appealing to local pride and sometimes agitating local politicians for ordinances that might keep national companies at bay. Though cheap prices helped, advertising was the real key in building acceptance of brand names and allowing for the growth of national manufacturing companies.
Term
In 1890, what percentage of African American men worked in personal service?
Definition
one-third

By 1890, almost a third of African American men worked in personal service. This problem stemmed from racism by corporations that refused to hire black men for any position other than menial labor.
Term
Most of the immigrants without industrial skills who flooded into American factories came from
Definition
southern and Eastern Europe.

Immigrants from southern and Eastern Europe (Italians and Slavs) were largely peasants, displaced by the breakdown of the traditional rural economies of their native countries. They better filled the need for unskilled factory work than did immigrants from northern Europe, many of whom brought a craft or trade with them.
Term
The emergence of modern labor management was characterized by
Definition
the elimination of brain work from manual labor.

New management systems such as Frederick W. Taylor’s scientific management method increased efficiency by emphasizing specialization among workers and concentrating authority in a new managerial class, who did the brain work for manual laborers. While this new style of production increased efficiency and productivity, it crushed any sense of mastery among workers.
Term
All of the following statements accurately describe working women in the American labor force in the late nineteenth century except
Definition
about one-third of working women were maids or domestic servants, one-third held white-collar jobs, and one-third worked in factories

Women in the late nineteenth century increasingly entered the workforce, but in segmented occupations based on class, gender, and race. Most black women in the nation worked in domestic service, particularly northern black women. By 1900, over 4 million women worked for wages in percentages evenly distributed between domestic service, factory work, and white-collar occupations. Secretarial work represented a higher-paying job than domestic service and factory work.
Term
What type of mills sprouted in the Carolinas and Georgia by 1900?
Definition
textile

By 1900, new textile mills had spread across Georgia and the Carolinas, relying upon child labor to create a low-wage industrial sector.
Term
Participants in which of the following movements were arrested in the aftermath of the Haymarket Square bombing?
Definition
anarchists

Anarchists organized a protest at Haymarket that ended in violence and death when police moved to break it up, and someone threw a bomb. Anarchists were blamed (the evidence against the individuals who were charged was extremely weak), but the event set off an antiunion and antiradical hysteria that allowed the relatively conservative American Federation of Labor to take leadership of the American labor movement and weakened alternatives such as the Knights of Labor.
Term
Henry Clay Frick was responsible for
Definition
crushing strikers at Homestead, Pennsylvania.

Andrew Carnegie had espoused support for unions and created a town in Homestead, Pennsylvania, which was considered to be worker friendly. When he felt that collective bargaining was costing him profits, he put Henry Clay Frick in charge of crushing the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers, which he did with the help of Pinkerton detectives and the state militia.
Term
Eugene V. Debs founded the
Definition
American Socialist Party.

Eugene Debs founded the American Socialist Party in 1901 at a time when American corporations reached a high point in concentration of power. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) would be founded four years later, reflecting the turn towards socialism and labor values by many American workers during the early twentieth century.
Term
What major event of the 1870s produced anti-Chinese sentiment on the Pacific coast?
Definition
economic recession

During the depression of the 1870s, hostility was especially extreme in the Pacific coast states, where the majority of Asian immigrants lived. An anti-Chinese movement formed, particularly in California, which produced major violence against the Chinese and a political policy of exclusion through the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
Term
Trade unions were different from industrial unions in that
Definition
trade unions organized skilled workers on the basis of craft, such as carpentry, while industrial unions organized workers in a single industry, such as railroads, regardless of skill.

Trade unions were the first national organizations of American workers and united workers on the basis of skill, while industrial unions united all workers in an industry or a workplace, regardless of skill. Trade unions often represented the aristocracy of labor, while industrial unions attempted to organize more broadly, even among workers perceived to be holding relatively insignificant positions.
Term
The New South in the early 1800s was characterized by
Definition
a high geographical mobility and a desire to make the West into a slave society.

Between 1800 and 1860, white planters from the South were moving West. The South’s master class was one of the most mobile in history. The southerners’ goal was to make the West into a slave society similar to the one their fathers and grandfathers had built in Virginia and South Carolina.
Term
The domestic slave trade was
Definition
the transportation and economic system that brought black slaves to the New South.

After the United States outlawed its participation in the International Slave Trade in 1809, white southerners created a domestic slave trade that served as an internal mechanism to disperse African American slaves from the Upper or Old South where tobacco had dominated to the Lower or New South recently taken from Native American people. The goal of white southerners was to expand cotton production using slave labor.
Term
The federal government played a major role in the expansion of slavery to the New South through all of the following ways except
Definition
investing in railroads and other industrial development projects in the 1810s.

The federal government played a major role in the expansion of slavery by securing Louisiana from the French in 1803, removing Native Americans from the southeastern states in the 1830s, and annexing Texas and Mexican territories in the 1840s. That advance of 900 miles more than doubled the geographical area cultivated by slave labor and nearly doubled the number of southern slave states, which increased from eight in 1800 to fifteen by 1850.
Term
The domestic slave trade impacted African American families by
Definition
destroying one in four slave marriages.

For African American families, the domestic slave trade was a disaster that accentuated their status—and vulnerability—as property. The sheer size of the domestic slave trade meant that it touched thousands of families and destroyed about one in every four slave marriages. The trade was not limited to adults. Planters sold many slaves as they reached maturity, separating them forever from their families.
Term
The gang system of slave labor in the New South was characterized by
Definition
large work crews supervised by a black driver and a white overseer to work on plantations.

To increase the output of their enslaved workers, profit-conscious cotton planters began during the 1820s to use a rigorous gang-labor system. Previously, many planters had either supervised their workers sporadically, or assigned them random jobs and let them work at their own pace. Now masters with twenty or more slaves organized disciplined teams, or gangs, supervised by black drivers and white overseers. They instructed drivers and overseers to use the lash to work the gangs at a steady pace.
Term
All of the following are examples of passive resistance except
Definition
slave rebellion.

Passive resistance by African Americans seriously limited the power of their owners. Slaves slowed the pace of work by feigning illness and losing or breaking tools. Others refused to follow orders. Violent slave resistance falls into the active response category.
Term
Where did most free southern blacks live?
Definition
in coastal cities

The free black population in the slave states numbered approximately 94,999 in 1810 and 224,000 in 1860. Most of these men and women lived in coastal cities such as Mobile, Memphis, and New Orleans. They formed the backbone of the region’s urban artisan workforce.
Term
Free blacks faced all of the following dangers except
Definition
Indian massacre

Free blacks faced many dangers in the urban coastal South, but Indian massacres did not rank high on the list. More dangerous was the lack of legal recourse to a jury trial when accused of a crime. Other problems included being charged with vagrancy and legally put back into bondage. Some free blacks were simply kidnapped by unscrupulous whites and sold.
Term
Which of the following free black men headed the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC)?
Definition
Richard Allen

Free black men who achieved distinction and wealth within American society were merchant Paul Cuffee, the painter Joshua Johnston, the surveyor Benjamin Banneker, and Bishop Richard Allen of the AMEC.
Term
In which of the following ways did the federal government not restrict free black people?
Definition
prohibition against living in the northern states

The federal government set legal restrictions against free blacks by denying passports, public land claims, and employment with the postal service. Free blacks could live in the northern states but under intense cultural and legal scrutiny.
Term
John L. O’Sullivan’s term Manifest Destiny
Definition
embodied the dreams of American expansionists.

Manifest Destiny captured the ideal behind expansionist dreams of controlling the entire continent; the motivation to expand was there before the term. It was not based on ideas of equality but rather a belief in the cultural and racial superiority of Americans and their institutions. Manifest Destiny had nothing to do with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which saw Kansas and Nebraska recognized as two separate territories–—with Nebraska earmarked as a nonslaveholding territory and Kansas slated for the spread of the southern slave system.
Term
An American merchant who lived in California under the Mexican regime in the early 1820s was
Definition
Thomas Larkin.

Thomas Oliver Larkin, a successful merchant in the coastal town of Monterey, worked closely with Mexican ranchers. But he remained an American in outlook and eventually fostered California’s annexation to the United States.
Term
The United States dispatched which of the following men to lead a heavily armed “exploring” party to California in 1845?
Definition
John C. Fremont

To add military muscle to the scheme of encouraging independence of California from Mexico and its addition to the United States, Polk ordered the war department to send Captain John Fremont and an exploration party of heavily armed soldiers into Mexican territory. By December 1845, Fremont’s force had reached the Sacramento River Valley. Polk wanted California.
Term
Texas was annexed after
Definition
Congress approved a joint resolution.

Houston’s victory led to the independence of Texas, but annexation by the United States would not occur for another decade. Texas was annexed by a joint resolution of Congress by Democrats in 1845. Henry Clay had never strongly backed annexation. Mexico only broke off relations with the United States after Texas became a state.
Term
Which of the following nations did not claim title to lands in North America in the 1820s?
Definition
Germany

Mexico claimed the western and southwestern portion of North America, Great Britain possessed Canada and was attempting to expand into the Puget Sound region, and Indian tribes possessed entire stretches of the West. Germany had no land claims in North America.
Term
The Wilmot Proviso did all of the following except
Definition
pass through Congress with the support of an antiwar coalition.

The Wilmot Proviso was never passed by the Senate and was not an antiwar measure. Free-soil Democrats and conscience Whigs backed the Proviso’s call for a prohibition of slavery in the Mexican cession territories.
Term
The free-soil concept achieved significant popular support because
Definition
it stressed protection of white economic opportunity.

Free soil was popular because its focus was not on ending slavery but on keeping the West open for white settlement. Abolitionists such as William Lloyd Garrison denounced the movement as racist, although Frederick Douglas supported it. Southerners were just as opposed, as free soil was the basis of the Wilmot Proviso. Free soil did not celebrate the war but sought to control the territory gained in war for free settlement.
Term
In 1849, most of the migrants who came to California by land and sea to mine for gold were
Definition
men

By the end of 1849, more than 80,000 people, mostly men, had arrived in California to mine for gold.
Term
The southern conventions considered secession in 1850, but southern states did not secede then because
Definition
moderates convinced them to support the Compromise of 1850 with the understanding that secession would receive widespread support in the case of future slavery restrictions.

By promising to support secession later if Congress did anything to restrict slavery, moderates persuaded secessionists to support the compromise. Northern opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act came as a result of the Compromise, and in 1850 there was as yet not talk of war, even in the event of secession.
Term
A number of Whigs opposed the Mexican War because they
Definition
believed it was part of an immoral conspiracy by southerners to expand the institution of slavery.

The so-called conscience Whigs saw the war as part of a plan to extend slavery. They were not necessarily pacifists, and although it was a war of conquest against a weak country, that was not the Whigs’ primary objection. Polk’s domestic politics were not an issue in the war.
Term
The direct results of the Fugitive Slave Act included all of the following except
Definition
the formation of the Republican Party.

The Republican Party formed out of opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, not the Fugitive Slave Act. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, personal-liberty laws, and abolitionist aid for runaways were all direct responses to the new law.
Term
Events in Kansas seemed to demonstrate that popular sovereignty would lead
Definition
to violence.

Popular sovereignty did not seem to give an obvious advantage to either free or slave proponents, as both sides rushed people in to support their stand. It showed that compromise was not likely, as violence broke out almost immediately in Kansas.
Term
Instead of agreeing to Pierce’s annexation bid for more Mexican territory, Mexican officials agreed to sell a small amount of land earmarked by James Gadsden for
Definition
the construction of a southern-based transcontinental railroad.

As president, Pierce pursued an expansionist foreign policy. To mollify southern expansionists, President Pierce revived Polk’s plan to annex a large amount of territory south of the Rio Grande and named James Gadsden as his negotiator. Mexican officials rejected Pierce’s annexation bid but agreed to sell a small amount of land that Gadsden wanted in order to construct a southern-based transcontinental railroad to the Pacific.
Term
The Republican Party drew the least support from which of the following groups?
Definition
Know-Nothing Party members

Republicans drew widespread support from antislavery Whigs, anti-Nebraska Democrats, and Free-Soilers. The Know-Nothings were divided in allegiance––only northern Know-Nothings switched parties to support Republicans; the southern half of the Know-Nothing Party stuck with Millard Fillmore, giving him 21 percent of the vote.
Term
In Dred Scott v. Sandford in 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney argued all of the following except
Definition
the platform of the Republican Party was unconstitutional.

Although the Court’s decision had the effect of declaring the Republican platform unconstitutional, it did not do so explicitly. It declared that slaves were not citizens and could not sue in federal court, that the Fifth Amendment protected slave property, and that Congress could not restrict slavery in the territories.
Term
Lincoln’s ambition propelled him into politics after having been raised by
Definition
an impoverished yeoman farming family.

Lincoln came from an impoverished yeoman farming family that had moved from Kentucky, where Lincoln was born in 1809, to Indiana and then to Illinois. In 1831, Lincoln rejected the farmer’s life of his father and became a store clerk in New Salem, Illinois. Socially ambitious, Lincoln sought entry into the middle class, joining the New Salem Debating Society and reading Shakespeare and other literary works. Admitted to the bar in 1837, Lincoln moved to Springfield, the small country town that had become the new state capital. Entering political life, Lincoln served four terms as a Whig in the Illinois assembly, where he promoted education, state banking, and internal improvements such as canals and railroads. In 1846, the rising lawyer-politician won election to Congress.
Term
In 1854, politically speaking, Abraham Lincoln was a
Definition
Republican and former Whig who supported a moderate gradualist view on abolition.

Lincoln switched from the Whigs to the Republicans in the wake of Kansas-Nebraska and held a moderate position on slavery. He had never been a Free-Soiler, a conscience Whig, or an anti-Nebraska Democrat.
Term
As a congressman during the Mexican War, Lincoln supported
Definition
both the war and the Wilmot Proviso.

Lincoln voted for war funding and the Wilmot Proviso, thus supporting the war as long as slavery was not extended into the new territories. California was admitted to the Union as a free state.
Term
John Brown intended to end which of the following institutions by his raid at Harpers Ferry in 1859?
Definition
slavery

John Brown and a biracial team of eighteen heavily armed raiders struck the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859. Brown hoped to arm slaves with the arsenal’s weapons and mount a major rebellion that would end slavery. The raid failed and Brown was hung but he became a martyr and catalyzed the abolitionist movement and helped bring on the Civil War.
Term
What approximate amount of the present-day continental United States remained in the hands of other nations in 1830?
Definition
more than half

Mexico held Texas, California, and all the lands in between; Great Britain claimed the Oregon Country, and Russia held Alaska. In 1830, the United States possessed 70 percent of its current continental size.
Term
Abraham Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan for Reconstruction
Definition
offered general amnesty to all but high-ranking Confederates willing to pledge loyalty to the Union; when 10 percent of a state’s voters took this oath, the state would be restored to the Union.

The Constitution does not address the procedure for reconstruction, nor does it say which branch of government should handle the readmission of rebellious states. Lincoln’s plan was a generous attempt to avoid violence and prolonged conflict while the South began the process of reintegrating its political and economic systems with the North.
Term
In the postwar struggle for land in the South between ex-Confederates and former slaves,
Definition
some black families in South Carolina acquired land, but ex-Confederates had most of the confiscated lands restored to them.

Blacks acquired land in South Carolina, but after a struggle, most acreage eventually ended up back in the hands of its original owners. The freedmen never had extensive tracts of land. Sharecroppers were given land to live on and farm but were not the owners.
Term
Under President Andrew Johnson, high-ranking Confederate military officers could regain their property and win amnesty by
Definition
petitioning the president personally.

Johnson demanded that high-ranking officials go beyond the oath he required of everyone else and petition directly to him for a pardon. Southern governments had to accept the abolition of slavery to be readmitted to the Union, but Johnson never supported African American suffrage.
Term
Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment to
Definition
provide constitutional protection for African American civil rights.

The Fourteenth Amendment was intended to give some protection for civil rights by declaring all the former slaves citizens and guaranteeing them protection under the law. It did not end slavery—the Thirteenth Amendment did that—and although it was aimed at changing Johnson’s Reconstruction policies, it was not primarily to embarrass him. Although it did mention voting rights, it only prescribed penalties for violations, it did not forbid the denial of voting rights.
Term
Johnson’s opposition to the Fourteenth Amendment succeeded in
Definition
helping the Republicans to win an overwhelming majority in Congress.

Johnson’s opposition to and active campaigning against the Fourteenth Amendment only made matters worse for the Democrats and contributed to the huge Republican majority in the 1866 election. He gave more power to the Radicals by opposing the amendment, and he failed to unite conservative Republicans and Democrats. His impeachment, although connected to his opposition of the Fourteenth Amendment, was based on other charges.
Term
Andrew Johnson was impeached as president on the charge that he
Definition
had engaged in misconduct and infringement on the powers of Congress.

Although many considered Johnson to be a traitor to the Republicans, this was not a crime; neither was coming up with his own version of Reconstruction. Allowing ex-Confederates back into government was not a crime either, and there was no constitutional guarantee of blacks’ civil rights yet in existence when Johnson’s actions toward former Confederates were taken. Johnson’s dismissal of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton led to Johnson’s impeachment.
Term
The odds were stacked against freedmen sharecroppers primarily because
Definition
they had to borrow money to survive until their first crop came in, but the returns on cotton production were too low to pay off their debts.

The problem with sharecropping was that the initial loans needed could rarely be paid off because of the ever-declining price of cotton. Farm size varied and was a hindrance to profitability, in large part because of debt and low cotton prices. Landlords and merchants did have the upper hand on sharecroppers, but they had the law on their side, so what they did was not illegal. Sharecroppers moved, but it was often to escape debt, and it did not increase costs.
Term
Dissenting Republicans, who voted to acquit President Johnson of criminal misconduct, did so because
Definition
removal of a president over a policy dispute would be a dangerous precedent.

Dissenting Republicans were afraid of setting the precedent of removing a president over policy disputes—it seemed to violate the system of checks and balances of the Constitution. Although Johnson had clearly committed infringement on the rights of Congress, dissenting Republicans believed that the act was probably unconstitutional.
Term
Republicans in the South were composed of a coalition of
Definition
former Whigs, a few former Democrats, newcomers from the North, and African Americans.

The Republicans were varied in their composition, but much of their membership came from former Whigs, a few former Democrats, newcomers from the North, and African Americans. Southern ex-slave owners were rarely Republican, and northern Democrats rarely moved south just to change parties. Abolitionists and northern blacks moved to the South as well but did not join with southern Democrats.
Term
Republican policies in the South emphasized
Definition
modernizing and democratizing southern institutions.

Southern Republican governments tried to modernize the South with public schools, roads, and railroads and opened up democracy by eliminating property qualifications for voting and making more offices elective. They did not want white supremacy; they accepted but did not create sharecropping; and they raised taxes to pay for their social programs.
Term
Ex-Confederates and conservative whites across the South responded to Republican Reconstruction with all of the following except
Definition
support for Republican governments and their new version of the South.

Former Confederate and conservative whites did not support Republican governments or their new version of the South. Instead they instigated violent riots, organized the Klan to terrorize blacks, and retook confiscated lands.
Term
Republican governments across the South fell one by one to Democrats in the mid-1870s primarily because
Definition
ex-Confederate politicians, using terrorism, silenced the black and Republican vote.

Republican governments fell in large part because of the violence employed against them by the Klan and other terrorist groups. Although the federal government’s support was waning, it was primarily terrorist activities in the South that intimidated the black and Republican votes. Black officials were effective in governing, and problems in the agricultural sector were real but not the source of political opposition.
Term
Klan leader Nathan Bedford Forrest was best known during the Civil War for commanding southern troops who committed a massacre of black Union troops at
Definition
Fort Pillow.

Confederate General Forrest on April 12, 1864, led his troops to commit one of the war’s worst atrocities, the massacre of unarmed black Union troops at Fort Pillow, Tennessee. Forrest’s troops refused to take prisoners, instead shooting down black soldiers as they tried to surrender.
Term
All of the following are true regarding ex-slaves and education in the South during Reconstruction except
Definition
the Republican Party disapproved of education for freedmen and women.

Most impressive of Reconstruction Republican governments was in the arena of public education. Republicans viewed education as the foundation of a true democratic order. By 1875, over half of black children were attending school in Mississippi, Florida, and South Carolina. Blacks of all ages rushed to the newly established schools, even when they had to pay tuition.
Term
African Americans constituted a majority in the lower legislature in which of the following states in 1868?
Definition
South Carolina

As the reconstructed governments began to function in 1867, African American politicians increased their advocacy to reform the South. Though never proportionate to their numbers in the population, blacks became officeholders across the South. In South Carolina, African Americans constituted a majority in the lower house of the legislature in 1868.
Term
All of the following are true regarding the U.S. and British relationship regarding the Civil War except
Definition
the British gave back African American slaves to the United States.

The British assisted the Confederacy during the Civil War by allowing the CSS Alabama to be constructed in England. After the war was over, Britain was forced through arbitration to pay the United States over $15 million. Senator Charles Sumner proposed that Britain cede Canada.
Term
During the 1870s, the buffalo were decimated by
Definition
animal diseases and overhunting by whites.

Overhunting and European animal afflictions, like the bacterial disease brucellosis, decimated herds. In the 1870s, hide hunters finished them off so thoroughly that fewer than a hundred bison remained. Hunters left the meat to rot.
Term
Which of the following ethnic groups was not represented in large numbers in the agricultural settlement of the Great Plains?
Definition
Chinese

Many of the farmers on the northern plains were foreign-born, with northern Europeans such as Germans, Norwegians, and Swedes representing large numbers. The Exodusters were African Americans from the South who settled in Kansas. Chinese immigrants came to the Far West and worked in mining, on railroads, or in agriculture, but they did not settle in the Midwest.
Term
The Sioux felt they could withstand the U.S. Army at the Battle of Wounded Knee because of their participation in the
Definition
Ghost Dance.

When a group of Lakota Sioux Ghost Dancers left their reservation in South Dakota, they were pursued by the U.S. Seventh Cavalry, who feared that the Ghost Dance would provoke war. On December 29, 1890, at Wounded Knee Creek, a battle broke out that left over 150 Lakota people dead.
Term
By the mid-1870s, which of the following tribes was not subdued on a reservation?
Definition
Lakota Sioux

By the mid-1870s, the Kiowa and Comanche had been forced onto designated reservations. The Modoc in California had paid a heavy price for attacking the Army. Only the Lakota Sioux under Sitting Bull refused to relocate to a reservation. Their efforts to resist federal policy would occupy the national center-stage during the late 1870s.
Term
Which of the following interest groups directly shaped the peace policy?
Definition
Christian reformers
When Ulysses S. Grant entered the White House, he inherited a U.S. Indian policy in disarray. Based on recommendations from Christian reformers, Grant developed a peace policy for the West. Reformers were in charge. Many were former abolitionists and had created reform organizations to assist Indian people. They rejected Army racism in favor of Indian assimilation through education and religious training in boarding schools.
Term
The one-armed veteran who wrote a famous book on western land conditions in 1878 was
Definition
John Wesley Powell.

A veteran of Shiloh, Powell was an early employee of the new U.S. Geological Survey. In his Report on the Lands of the Arid Regions of the United States, Powell told Congress bluntly that typical farming methods would not work in the newly discovered dry region. He proposed an ambitious federal plan to develop western water and farming resources, which Congress ignored until the 1930s.
Term
All of the following are true regarding Secretary of State William Seward except
Definition
he refused to negotiate land deals in Latin America for a canal.

Having an ambitious drive and a big ego, Seward was also an expansionist secretary of state who advocated the forceful opening of trade relations with Japan, the purchase of Alaska from Russia, the buying of land from Nicaragua for a canal, and the signing of the Burlingame Treaty with China to regulate immigration.
Term
Which two languages became the primary languages spoken in parts of Minnesota and the Dakotas by the mid-1880s?
Definition
Norwegian and Swedish

When a severe depression hit northern Europe in the 1870s, Norwegians and Swedes joined German emigrants in large numbers to America. At the peak of “America fever” in 1882, over 100,000 Scandinavians left for the United States. Swedish and Norwegian became the primary languages in parts of Minnesota and the Dakotas.
Term
All of the following are true about the Mormon experience in the West except
Definition
most Americans had a positive view of the Mormon Church and people.

Most Americans in the late 1800s remained deeply hostile to Mormonism, a faith founded by Joseph Smith who also sanctioned polygamy. Reflecting their own view of women’s role in society, the Utah state legislature, dominated by Mormon men, granted women full voting rights in 1870.
Term
In Kansas, six towns elected which of the following groups as mayors, revolutionizing the notion of local office holding in the United States?
Definition
white women

Kansas reflected the expansion of voting rights for women in the United States during the late 1800s. In 1887, white women were elected to mayors in six Kansas towns; one city boasted the nation’s first all-female city council. This trend also reflected the increase of women working outside of the home.
Term
What was the size of the acre parcel provided through the Homestead Act?
Definition
160 acres

Although the 160-acre parcel provided by the Homestead Act of 1862 was effective in a well-watered and semi-forested environment, in the more arid Great Plains it failed to be of sufficient size to provide a profit for average farmers in the late 1800s. Three hundred acres was the recommended increase according to aridity experts like John Wesley Powell in 1878. This led to an increase in corporate control of the agricultural industry and farmer protest over time.