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AP2 Holes
Respiratory Chap 19
200
Anatomy
07/06/2009

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Cards

Term
Microorganisms removed from incoming air by sticky mucus are most likely to be destroyed by
Definition
C. the digestive action of gastric juice
Term
Which of the following bones does not possess sinuses?
Definition
D. zygomatic
Term
Which of these laryngeal cartilages occurs singly rather than in pairs?
Definition
A. cricoid
Term
The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the
Definition
B. tension on the vocal cord.
Term
The walls of the alveoli are composed of
Definition
B. simple squamous epithelium
Term
The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by
Definition
D. atmospheric pressure.
Term
The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the
Definition
C. elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension
Term
The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the
Definition
A. tidal volume
Term
Which of the following is true as a result of the dead air space of the respiratory tract?
Definition
A. Air exchange is more complete.
Term
The chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood
Definition
A. carbon dioxide concentration
Term
The portion of the respiratory center that is responsible for the basic rhythm pattern of breathing is the
Definition
A. dorsal respiratory group.
Term
The effects of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions on the respiratory center are similar because
Definition
D. carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid.
Term
The vocal cords are located within the
Definition
B. larynx.
Term
The respiratory membrane consists of
Definition
D. two thicknesses of epithelial cells and basement membranes.
Term
The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when
Definition
B. carbon dioxide concentration increases.
Term
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes
Definition
A. carbon dioxide to react with water.
Term
Of the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume?
Definition
C. vital capacity
Term
Which of the following is (are) a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages?
Definition
D. all of the above
Term
The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the
Definition
A. force of air passing over the vocal cords.
Term
Which of the following proteins is the most important physiologically in the transport of carbon dioxide by blood?
Definition
B. carbonic anhydrase
Term
If a flashlight is placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room, it may be possible to illuminate the
Definition
A. frontal sinus.
Term
Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may cause
Definition
B. obstruction of the airway.
Term
The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called
Definition
A. bronchoscopy.
Term
The condition of newborns called respiratory distress syndrome is caused by a
Definition
A. lack of surfactant.
Term
The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by
Definition
C. surface tension
Term
The condition in which air enters the pleural cavity is called
Definition
B. pneumothorax.
Term
Which of the following air volumes cannot be measured using a simple spirometer?
Definition
C. residual volume
Term
the most sensitive areas of the air passages are located in the
Definition
A. larynx and bronchi
Term
Bronchial asthma is a condition caused by
Definition
C. an allergy.
Term
During an asthma attack, the patient usually finds it most difficult to
Definition
A. exhale.
Term
Emphysema is characterized by an increase in
Definition
D. none of the above
Term
Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to develop from
Definition
A. epithelial cells.
Term
The percentage of carbon dioxide in ordinary air is about
Definition
C. 0.04%.
Term
Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to
Definition
B. increase the rate and depth of breathing.
Term
The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity functions to
Definition
warms incoming air, moisten incoming air, entrap dust and other small particles. (all of the above )
Term
Hyperventilation is most likely to be accompanied by a(n)
Definition
B. decrease in blood C02 concentration and a rise in pH.
Term
During moderate physical exercise, blood concentrations of
Definition
B. oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged.
Term
The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______
Definition
C. common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only
Term
The trachea can be described as
Definition
lined with a ciliated mucous membrane, including about 20 C-shaped cartilage rings, a passageway for air, D. all of the above
Term
Changes in the structure of the respiratory tube as the branches become finer include the
Definition
D. epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous.
Term
The right lung is composed of______ lobes; the left lung is composed of______ lobes.
Definition
A. superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior
Term
The first event in inspiration is
Definition
A. the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract.
Term
The first event in expiration is
Definition
D. the diaphragm and external respiratory muscles relax.
Term
Increasing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions have similar effects upon the respiratory center due to
Definition
C. an increase in carbon dioxide, thereby resulting in an increase in hydrogen ions.
Term
The utilization of oxygen by metabolic processes is correctly referred to as
Definition
D. cell respiration
Term
Which of the following is part of the upper respiratory tract?
Definition
D. pharynx
Term
The conchae create the ______
Definition
D. meatuses
Term
The olfactory nerves pass through openings in the ______
Definition
B. cribiform plate
Term
Most of the respiratory passage surface is lined with ______
Definition
A. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Term
Which of the following is not a property of the mucous lining of the respiratory tract?
Definition
B. contains microvilli
Term
Which of the following does not contain a sinus?
Definition
C. zygomatic bone
Term
What is the anatomical term for the throat?
Definition
B. pharynx
Term
Where are the palatine tonsils located?
Definition
A. oropharynx
Term
The epiglottis is part of the ______ and covers the glottis.
Definition
C. larynx
Term
The true vocal cords move because they are attached to the _______ cartilage.
Definition
C. corniculate
Term
C- shaped pieces of cartilage are found within the ______
Definition
A. trachea
Term
The exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body is called
Definition
B. internal respiration
Term
Which of these functions cannot be attributed to the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity?
Definition
D. initial gas exchange between air and blood occurs here
Term
The _____________ cartilage marks the lowermost portion of the larynx.
Definition
A. cricoid
Term
The true vocal cords are those that produce the sounds of the human voice. Where are these located?
Definition
C. inferior to the false vocal cords
Term
Within the bronchial tree, which tubes are small branches that enter the lobules of the lungs?
Definition
C. intralobular bronchioles
Term
Thin-walled outpouchings of the alveolar ducts of the lungs are the
Definition
B. alveolar sacs
Term
The primary force responsible for air moving into the lungs during inhalation is
Definition
A. atmospheric pressure
Term
The lipoprotein known as _______________ reduces surface tension within the alveoli so they do not collapse during exhalation.
Definition
A. surfactant
Term
The force of exhalation is primarily due to ________________________
Definition
B. elastic recoil of thoracic muscles
Term
Even after the most forceful exhalation, a certain volume of air remains in the lungs. This volume is called the __________________
Definition
D. residual volume
Term
The maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible is the ____________________
Definition
C. vital capacity
Term
The basic rhythm of breathing is controlled by which portion of the brain?
Definition
B. dorsal respiratory group of the medullary rhythmicity center
Term
The respiratory membrane, across which gases diffuse, is very thin and is made up of
Definition
D. alveolar cell membrane, capillary membrane, and fused basement membranes
Term
Whether oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood or not is dependent upon
Definition
A. the partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs and in the blood
Term
Within the blood, oxygen is primarily transported ___ while the bulk of carbon dioxide is transported _____
Definition
C. as oxyhemoglobin; as bicarbonate ions
Term
What is the first structure in this respiratory sequence?
Definition
D. pharynx
Term
Which structures play the greatest role in warming and humidifying air?
Definition
C. conchae
Term
The area directly superior to the soft palate is the _____
Definition
B. nasopharynx
Term
Which sinuses are NOT paranasal sinuses?
Definition
A. mastoid
Term
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located?
Definition
D. nasopharynx
Term
Which passageway serves as a common route for food or air?
Definition
C. oropharynx
Term
What is the opening to the larynx called?
Definition
D. glottis
Term
What is the Adam’s apple directly part of?
Definition
A. thyroid cartilage
Term
Which part of the respiratory tree has the greatest relative percentage of smooth muscle fibers?
Definition
D. bronchioles
Term
The only structures that allow gas diffusion across them are the
Definition
B. alveoli
Term
Which principle normally prevents the alveoli from collapsing during expiration?
Definition
D. secretion of surfactant
Term
The space between the two lungs is called the ______
Definition
C. mediastinum
Term
What are the most powerful stimuli for breathing?
Definition
C. low pH; high C02
Term
The carina separates the ______ from each other.
Definition
C. primary bronchi
Term
There are _____ secondary bronchi?
Definition
C. 5
Term
The interlobular bronchioles enter the ______ of the lungs.
Definition
C. lobules
Term
The functional gas-exchanging units are termed _____
Definition
C. alveoli
Term
The relative amount of smooth muscle is highest in the ______
Definition
B. bronchioles
Term
The tissue lining the alveoli is _____ epithelium.
Definition
C. simple squamous
Term
How many alveoli are there in an average adult lung?
Definition
C. 300,000,000
Term
Gas is exchanged in the alveoli by a process of ______
Definition
A. simple diffusion
Term
What is the entrance into the lungs called?
Definition
D. hilus
Term
The pleural cavity is the space between the lung and _____
Definition
C. parietal pleura
Term
The main function of the pleural membranes is to ______
Definition
D. reduce friction
Term
Atmospheric pressure is around ______ mmHg.
Definition
A. 760
Term
The movement of air in and out of the lungs is correctly referred to as ______
Definition
D. ventilation
Term
What prevents the alveoli from collapsing during exhalation?
Definition
C. surfactants
Term
The main force causing the exhalation of air is the ______
Definition
B. elastic recoil
Term
During inspiration the intra-alveolar pressure reaches ______
Definition
B. 758 mmHg
Term
A pneumothorax occurs when the thoracic pleural pressure _________ compared to the atmospheric pressure.
Definition
A. is equal to
Term
This muscle can cause a forced exhalation.
Definition
C. internal intercostal
Term
The amount of air that enters the lungs during normal, restful breathing is called the
Definition
B. tidal air volume
Term
The amount of air that cannot be expelled is the ______
Definition
D. residual volume
Term
Which of these is the sum of the other three?
Definition
C. vital capacity
Term
The total amount of air that cannot be exchanged is termed the ______
Definition
B. physiologic dead space
Term
The condition characterized by alveolar fibrosis with difficulty exhaling is
Definition
C. emphysema
Term
The condition characterized by difficulty breathing due to an allergic response is ______
Definition
B. bronchial asthma
Term
Non-respiratory movements are most easily triggered by stimuli in which of these areas?
Definition
A. larynx
Term
Which reflex involves a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm?
Definition
B. hiccup
Term
Which reflex is caused by local alveolar decreases in oxygen content?
Definition
D. yawn
Term
Breathing is mainly controlled by the ______
Definition
B. medulla oblongata and pons
Term
Which area exerts its effect on the primary breathing control areas?
Definition
A. pneumotaxic area of pons
Term
Which of the following factors favors an increase in breathing rate?
Definition
B. increased blood carbon dioxide
Term
Which of the following does not stimulate the medullary breathing center chemo-sensitive neurons?
Definition
B. low blood oxygen
Term
Which of these is not a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
Definition
C. lung cancer
Term
Which mechanism prevents over-inflation of the lungs?
Definition
D. Hering-Breuer reflex
Term
Which is the most common cause of hyperventilation?
Definition
C. anxiety
Term
Which is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
Definition
D. nitrogen
Term
What is the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen?
Definition
A. l60 mmHg
Term
What is the normal pCO2 of the capillary blood?
Definition
B. 45mmHg
Term
What is the normal pO2 of the alveolar air?
Definition
C. l04mmHg
Term
Where is the highest amount of carbon dioxide found?
Definition
C. the arteries entering the lung
Term
Which condition is characterized by inflammation and infection involving the alveoli?
Definition
C. pneumonia
Term
Most of the oxygen in the blood is found in the _____
Definition
B. hemoglobin
Term
At high pO2 levels, where is most oxygen located?
Definition
A. oxyhemoglobin
Term
Which of the following factors favors a release of oxygen from hemoglobin?
Definition
B. decreased pH
Term
Which of these has the highest affinity for hemoglobin?
Definition
D. CO
Term
Where is most carbon dioxide transported?
Definition
C. as the bicarbonate ion
Term
The most important factor that allows the blood to carry carbon dioxide in high amounts is _
Definition
C. carbonic anhydrase
Term
All of the following are organs of the respiratory system except the
Definition
b. esophagus
Term
Which of the following is not found in the pharynx?
Definition
d. vocal cords
Term
The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood occurs in the
Definition
b. lungs
Term
The exchange of gases between the lungs and lung capillaries is called
Definition
b. external respiration
Term
The functional (terminal) unit of the respiratory system is the:
Definition
c. alveoli
Term
The primary muscle of respiration is the
Definition
a. diaphragm
Term
The tissue that prevents food from entering the lungs is the
Definition
b. epiglottis
Term
The temporary absence of breathing is called:
Definition
a. apnea
Term
A significant factor in maintaining the normal pH of body fluids is the loss of which gas during external respiration?
Definition
c. CO2
Term
Pleurisy results from an accumulation of fluid in the
Definition
a. pleural cavity
Term
Which of the following statements about the C-shaped rings of cartilage of the trachea is incorrect?
Definition
d. They form a complete circle in the trachea.
Term
The release of oxygen by hemoglobin for use in body tissues is dependent upon which of the following?
Definition
c. low oxygen concentration of the body tissue
Term
The unit of the respiratory system most directly involved in external respiration is the :
Definition
b. alveolus
Term
Respiratory alkalosis is caused by
Definition
d. removal of too much CO2
Term
The vital capacity includes:
Definition
a. tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume
Term
The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the
Definition
c. tension of the vocal cords
Term
The walls of the alveoli are composed of
Definition
b. simple squamous epithelium
Term
The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by
Definition
d. atmospheric pressure
Term
The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle
Definition
a. tidal volume
Term
Which of the following is (are) a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages?
Definition
warming inspired air, filtering inspired air, moistening inspired air, d. all of the preceding
Term
The intensity of a vocal sound is a result of the
Definition
a. force of air passing over the vocal cords
Term
Of the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume?
Definition
b. vital capacity
Term
When swallowing, the soft palate would have to move downward in order to prevent food from entering the lungs
Definition
False
Term
The smooth muscle within the vocal cords allows them to change their tension for vocalization.
Definition
False
Term
The trachea contains rings of cartilage that surround the windpipe to keep it rigid.
Definition
True
Term
The respiratory tree contain a ciliated mucous lining that helps remove foreign particles from them.
Definition
True
Term
The respiratory membrane is comprised of the two layers of the alveoli.
Definition
False
Term
The organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the thorax.
Definition
True
Term
The pharynx is an enlargement at the top of the trachea that houses the vocal cords.
Definition
False
Term
The left lung is larger than the right lung and is divided into three lobes.
Definition
False
Term
The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords.
Definition
False
Term
The pectoralis minors and the sternocleidomastoid are useful in aiding forced expiration
Definition
False
Term
A sudden contraction of a diaphragm while the glottis is closed produces a sneeze.
Definition
False
Term
Ordinary air is about 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen
Definition
True
Term
Carbon monoxide bonds to hemoglobin more effectively than does oxygen
Definition
True
Term
The greatest amount of carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in the form of dissolved carbon dioxide.
Definition
True
Term
The inflation reflex is activated when stretch receptors are stimulated during inspiration
Definition
True
Term
Oxygen is carried in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions and is bound to hemoglobin
Definition
False
Term
Carbon monoxide is toxic because it attacks and destroys the respiratory center in the brain
Definition
False
Term
In order to maintain homeostasis, chloride ions move in as bicarbonate moves out of the erythrocyte.
Definition
True
Term
The main purpose for cellular oxygen is to provide a means of producing most of the cell energy
Definition
True
Term
During the act of swallowing the epiglottis moves upward and the glottis appears as a triangular slit.
Definition
False
Term
The alveoli exchange gases between the air and the capillaries within them.
Definition
False
Term
The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called parietal pleura
Definition
False
Term
The surface tension associated with the lungs can either cause the lungs to expand or collapse.
Definition
True
Term
Respiratory distress syndrome in an infant results from an inability to breathe because of excess surfactant production in the alveoli by type I
Definition
False
Term
During inspiration the diaphragm moves upward while thorax expands and moves outward.
Definition
False
Term
When the diaphragm contracts the pressure within the thoracic cavity decreases.
Definition
True
Term
The chemoreceptors in the aortic and carotid bodies are very sensitive to fluctuations in the levels of blood oxygen.
Definition
False
Term
Decreasing blood oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide cause the major increases seen in breathing rate during strenuous exercise.
Definition
False
Term
Hyperventilation causes its symptoms mainly because it results in respiratory acidosis.
Definition
False
Term
The respiratory membrane is the simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli.
Definition
False
Term
The PO2 in the pulmonary veins is less than the PO2 in the alveolar air.
Definition
True
Term
ARDS is a condition of lung collapse or atelectasis in a newborn.
Definition
False
Term
At high altitudes it is difficult to breathe because the air has a lower percent of oxygen.
Definition
False
Term
Carbon dioxide and oxygen compete for binding sites with the hemoglobin
Definition
False
Term
Most carbon dioxide is carried through the blood in the form of carboxyhemoglobin.
Definition
False
Term
Continued hypoventilation results in an increase in CO2 concentration.
Definition
True
Term
The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords.
Definition
True
Term
Aphagia is difficulty in swallowing.
Definition
True
Term
The respiratory system functions in pH balance.
Definition
True
Term
The trachea is about 15 inches.
Definition
False
Term
The alveoli are filled with pleural fluid
Definition
False
Term
During maximal expiration, the lungs can be completely emptied of air.
Definition
False
Term
The thyroid cartilage is the largest cartilage of the larynx.
Definition
True
Term
Asthma affects expiration more than inhalation.
Definition
True
Term
Rhinitis is an inflammation of the sinuses.
Definition
False
Term
Most CO2 is carried as CO2 dissolved in the plasma.
Definition
False
Term
The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the epiglottis.
Definition
True
Term
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and the hypothalmus of the brain stem.
Definition
False