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AP World History - Unit 5
Europe, Africa and the Americas: 1450 - 1750
34
History
01/24/2010

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Term
Council of the Indies
Definition
The institution responsible for supervising Spain's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities.
Term
Jesuits
Definition
Missionary branch of the Catholic Church, who were highly involved in their attempts to Christianize the Amerindian populations. Frustration eventually led to a change in agenda - from missionary work to building endeavors (churches, universities, etc.)
Term
Encomienda
Definition
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
Term
Mestizos
Definition
The term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed Amerindian and European descent.
Term
Indentured Servants
Definition
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.
Term
Bartolome de las Casas
Definition
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor for them.
Term
Joint-stock company
Definition
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
Term
Mita
Definition
Under this system, 1 out every 7 adult male Amerindians were compelled to work for six months each year in mines, or on farms and in textile factories. Oftentimes, women and children were forced to join workforce to help meet production quotas.
Term
Mulattoes
Definition
The term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent.
Term
Iroquois Confederacy
Definition
An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (six after 1722) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, the Confederacy dominated the area from western New England to the Great Lakes.
Term
Potosi
Definition
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
Term
Chartered Companies
Definition
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indies colonies.
Term
Creoles
Definition
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples.
Term
Tupac Amaru II
Definition
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family.
Term
Coureurs de Bois
Definition
French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian peoples of North America.
Term
Atlantic System
Definition
The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean basin. 
Term
Manumission
Definition
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave.
Term
Great Circuit
Definition
The network of trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay the Atlantic system.
Term
Plantocracy
Definition
In the West Indian colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the eighteenth century.
Term
Maroons
Definition
A slave who ran away from his or her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America.
Term
Middle Passage
Definition
The part of the Atlantic Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas.
Term
Seasoning
Definition
An often difficult period of adjustment to new climates, disease environments, and work routines, such as that experienced by slaves newly arrived in the Americas.
Term
Capitalism
Definition
The economic system of large financial institutions (banks, stock exchanges, investment companies) that first developed in early modern Europe. Commercial-capitalism, the trading system of the early modern economy, is often distinguished from industrial-capitalism, the system based on machine production.
Term
Mercantilism
Definition
European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country. The British system was defined by the Navigation Acts, the French system by laws known as the Exclusif.
Term
Estates General
Definition
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Term
Jacobins
Definition
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Term
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Definition
A former domestic slave, who created a more disciplined military order in leading the Haitian Revolution. He overcame rivals in Saint Domingue, defeated the British, and led an invaison of Santo Domingo.
Term
Revolutions of 1848
Definition
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.
Term
National Assembly
Definition
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Term
Robespierre
Definition
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Term
Congress of Vienna
Definition
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I.
Term
Napoleon Bonaparte
Definition
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Term
Haitian Revolution
Definition
Term
Declarations of the Rights of Man
Definition
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.