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AP Psychology first half
N/A
253
Psychology
10/04/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Mrs. Thompson believes that her son has become an excellent student because she consistently uses praise and affection to stimulate his learning efforts.  Her belief best illustrates a ________ perspective.

A. humanistic

B.cognitive

C. biological

D. psychodynamic

E. behavioral

 

Definition
E. behavioral
Term

The personality theorist, Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian

A. chemist

B. physician

C. theologian

D. politician

E. philanthropist

 

 

Definition
B. physician
Term

Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?

A. behavioral

B. cognitive

C. biological

D. socio-cultural

E. psychodynamic

Definition
B. cognitive
Term

Dr. Macpherson believes that the way students organize and think about the information in their textbooks will strongly influence their ability to later remember and use what they have studied.  Dr. Macpherson's ideas most directly exemplify the _______ perspective.

A. social-cultural

B. cognitive

C. psychodynamic

D. humanistic

E. biological

Definition
B. cognitive
Term

Who used the method of introspection to scientifically identify basic elements of mind?

A. Aristotle

B. John Locke

C. Edward Titchener

D. John Watson

E. Socrates

Definition
C. Edward Titchener
Term

Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?

A. Wilhelm Wundt

B. John B. Watson

C. Sigmund Freud

D. William James

E. Mary Calkins

Definition
D. William James
Term

Professor Reed attempts to assess the relative contributions of heredity and home environment on children's susceptibility to depression.  Her research best illustrates the concerns of the ______ approach.

A. psychodynamic

B. biopsychosocial

C. cognitive

D. humanistic

E. behavioral

Definition
B. biopsychosocial
Term

Clinical psychologists specialize in

A. constructing surveys

B. animal research

C. providing therapy to troubled people

D. providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders

E. treating patients in clinical settings

Definition
C. providing therapy to troubled people
Term

Masrk believes that people are genetically predisposed to dislike bitter-tasting foods because this has enhanced human survival.  his belief best illustrates the _______ perspective.

A. psychodynamic

B. social-cultural

C. evolutionary

D. behavioral

E. cognitive

Definition
C. evolutionary
Term

Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?

A. cognitive

B. behavioral

C. evolutionary

D. social-cultural

E. psychodynamic

 

Definition
C. evolutionary
Term

Research participants who carefully observe and report their immediate reactions and feelings in response to different musical sounds are using the method known as

A. spaced practice

B. psychoanalysis

C. introspection

D. natural selection

E. SQ3R

Definition
C. introspection
Term

In a class lecture, Professor Hampton emphasized the extent to which abnormal blood chemistry can contribute to psychological disorders.  The professor's lecture highlighted a ________ perspective on psychological disorders.

A. psychodynamic

B. humanistic

C. biological

D. social-cultural

E. cognitive

Definition
C. biological
Term

The method of introspection was used by Titchener to identify

A. inherited traits

B. learned responses

C. maladaptive behaviors

D. unconscious motives

E. elements of sensory experience

Definition
E. elements of sensory experience
Term

Who would be most likely to emphasize the role of the unconscious in affecting behavior?

A. Ivan Pavlov

B. Carl Rogers

C. William James

D. John B. Watson

E. Sigmund Freud

Definition
E. Sigmund Freud
Term

Dr. Veenstra conducts basic research on the impact of racial prejudice on behavior.  Dr. Veenstra is most likely a(n) _______ psychologist.

A. developmental

B. clinical

C. social

D. biological

E. industrial-organizational

Definition
C. social
Term

For no apparent reason, Adam has recently begun to feel so tense and anxious that he frequently stays home from work.  it would be most beneficial for Adam to contact a(n) _______ psychologist.

A. industrial-organizational

B. clinical

C. personality

D. biological

E. social

Definition
B. clinical
Term

Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?

A. evolutionary

B. behavioral

C. psychodynamic

D. biological

E. humanistic

Definition
D. biological
Term

Mergaret has difficulty speaking in front of her classmates and explains to a friend, "Everybody in my family is shy, so it must be genetic."  Using the biopsychosocial approach to understanding her behavior, Margaret should

A. examine additional psychological and social-cultural influences on shyness

B. reduce her experience in class to her immediate sensation and feelings.

C. focus on possible unconscious motivations for her fears

D. examine how fear is adaptive and has contributed to her ancestors' survival

E. explore how her perceptions affect her ability to speak in class

 

Definition
A. examine additional psychological and social-cultural influences on shyness.
Term

Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others.  Which specialty area does his research best represent?

A. cognitive psychology

B. social psychology

C. developmental psychology

D. clinical psychology

E. industrial-organizational psychology

Definition
B. social psychology
Term

Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?

A. evolutionary
B. biological

C. behavioral

D. humanistic

E. psychodynamic

Definition
C. behavioral
Term

Which of the following psychologists most clarly rejected the value of introspection?

A. Wilhelm Wundt

B. Edward Titchener

C. John B. Watson

D. William James

E. Sigmund Freud

Definition
C. John B. Watson
Term

Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother.  mrs. Alfieri is looking at her husband's behavior from a(n) _______ perspective.

A. evolutionary

B. behavioral

C. psychodynamic

D. biological

E. social-cultural

Definition
C. psychodynamic
Term

The ideas that most directly helped form modern empiricism were proposed by

A. Plato and Socrates

B. John Locke and Francis Bacon

C. Plato and Rene Descartes

D. Socrates and Confucius

E. Aristotle and Socrates

Definition
B. John Locke and Francis Bacon
Term

In the early 1960's, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of

A. mental processes

B. hereditary influences

C. unconscious motives

D. learned behaviors

E. evolutionary influences

 

Definition
A. mental processes
Term

Dr. Kozak has concluded that the unusually low incidence of alcohol dependence among citizens of a small African country can be attributed to strong fundamentalist religious influences in that region.  This belief best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.

A. humanistic

B. evolutionary

C. psychodynamic

D. biological

E. social-cultural

Definition
E. social-cultural
Term

Basing decisions or concllusions on observable evidence describes which of the following?

A. hindsight bias

B. confirmation bias

C. empirical approach

D. overconfidence

E. operational definition

 

Definition
C. empirical approach
Term

To exercise maximum control over the factors they are interested in studying, researchers engage in

A. case studies

B. correlational research

C. experimentation

D. replication

E. surveys

Definition
C. experimentation
Term

To study the effects of noise on worker productivity, researchers have one group of subjects work in a noisy room and a second group work in a quiet room.  To ensure that any differences in the productivity of the two groups actually result from the different noise levels to which the groups are exposed, the researchers would use

A. the case study

B. correlational measurement

C. naturalistic observation

D. replication

E. random assignment

Definition
E. random assignment
Term

What is the advantage of researchers using an empirical approach in evaluating the accuracy of eyewitness testimony?

A. researchers would experience greater overconfidence in their findings

B. such an approach allows researchers to set aside their critical thinking and explore their intuition

C. under controlled conditions, researchers collect evidence that may justify a cause-effect conclusion

D. the empirical approach fosters condeitions necessary for hindsight bias to occur

E. researchers may greatly overestimate eyewitness recollections when using the empirical approach

Definition
C. under controlled conditions, researchers collect evidence that may justify a cause-effect conclusion
Term

The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance that is presume to have medicinal benefits illustrates

A. random assignment

B. hindsight bias

C. the double-blind effect

D. the placebo effect

E. illusory correlation

 

Definition
D. the placebo effect
Term

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?

A. -0.12

B. +1.00

C. -0.99

D. +0.25

E. -0.50

Definition
A. -0.12
Term

Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes.  His idea is best described as a(n)

A. theory

B. replication

C. naturalistic observation

D. illusory correlation

E. hindsight bias

Definition
A. theory
Term

Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of events?

A. mean

B. scatterplot

C. standard deviation

D. median

E. correlation coefficient

[image]

Definition
C. standard deviation
Term

Mr. and Mrs. Klostreich have six children aged 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, and 16.  The mean age of the Klostreich children is

A. 5

B. 6

C. 6 1/2

D. 7

E. 8

Definition
E. 8
Term

If scored on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are normally distributed, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what percentage of scores will fall between 85 and 115?

A. 34

B. 47

C. 68

D. 80

E. 95

Definition
C. 68
Term

A soft drink company recently invested in a new advertising campaign to increase sales.  Which of the following would allow executives to best judge the results of their latest commercials?

A. compute the range based on the highest monthly sales this year with the lowest sales of last year

B. compare the mean sales of soft drinks with that of their major competitor

C. compute the mode to determine which soft drinks have the highest sales

D. compare the means of sales before and after the beginning of the new campaign to determine statistical significance

E. compute the median of sales for each of their product lines, then compare

Definition
D. compare the means of sales before and after the beginning of the new campaign to determine statistical significance
Term

When the observed difference between the means of an experimental group and control group are not likely due to chance, researchers conclude that this difference is

A. positively correlated

B. highly variable

C. reliable

D. statistically significant

E. experimentally empirical

Definition
D. statistically significant
Term

According to Professor Fayad, we like people who like us because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem.  His idea is an example of

A. naturalistic observation

B. illusory correlation

C. hindsight bias

D. replication

E. a theory

Definition
E. a theory
Term

Which of the following is true for those assigned to the experimental group in an experiment?

A. the rexperimenter exerts the greatest influence on participants' behavior

B. the research participants are exposed to all the different hypotheses

C. the experimental group receives the experimental treatment

D. the experimental group does not receive the experimental treatment

E. the operational definition is not applied to their variables

Definition
C. the experimental group receives the experimental treatment
Term

To describe the behavior of animals in their native habitats, researchres are most likely to make use of

A. survey research

B. the double-blind procedure

C. random assignment

D. experimental methods

E. naturalistic observation

Definition
E. naturalistic observation
Term

What is the primary limitation of the case study research method?

A. it is not an empirical method

B. the case study is not part of the scientific method

C. random sampling must be used to ensure representative findings

D. individual cases can be misleading and result in false generalizations

E. correlational findings from case studies cannot be interpreted as casual

Definition
D. individual cases can be misleading and result in false generalizations
Term

Which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation?

A. control group, random sampling, random assignment

B. case study, naturalistic observation, survey

C. informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing

D. volunteer participants only, no deception, incentives for participation

E. effect size, statistical significance, measure of central tendency, variation

Definition
C. informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing
Term

The sequential occurrence of two highly unusual events is most likely to contribute to

A. random sampling

B. the hindsight bias

C. the placebo effect

D. an illusory correlation

E. overconfidence

Definition
D. an illusory correlation
Term

Psychologists' personal values and goals

A. are carefully tested by means of observation and experimentation

B. lead them to avoid experiments involving human participants

C. can bias their observations and interpretations

D. have very little influence on the process of scientific observation

E. affect their work only if they are different from the norm

Definition
C. can bias their observations and interpretations
Term

When we see certain outcomes as obvious based on what has occured, we may be experiencing

A. empiricism

B. critical thinking

C. hindsight bias

D. overconfidence

E. humility

Definition
C. hindsight bias
Term

If college graduates typically earn more money than high school graduates, this would indicate that level of education and income are

A. causally related

B. positively correlated

C. independent variables

D. dependent variables

E. negatively correlated

Definition
B. positively correlated
Term

Dr. Roberts hypothesized that students in a classroom seating 30 would get higher course grades than students seated in an auditorium seating 300.  In this example,

A. Dr. Roberts has found a cause-effect relationship

B. Dr. Roberts has found a positive correlation between classroom size and course grades

C. the independent variable is the measurement of course grades

D. classroom size has been operationally defined

E. Dr. Roberts has demonstrated the importance of random sampling=

Definition
D. classroom size has been operationally defined
Term

Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?

A. the experimenter exerts the greatest influence on participants' behavior

B. the reserach participants are exposed to all the different experimental treatments

C. the research participants are exposed to the most favorable levels of experimental treatment

D. the experimental treatment is absent

E. the operational definition is not applied to their variables

Definition
D. the experimental treatment is absent
Term

 

 

  1. Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?

    A) hippocampus

    B) amygdala

    C) pons

    D) thalamus

    E) medulla

 

Definition
D) thalamus
Term

 

  1. Which of the following fictional research findings is the best evidence against the idea that “our lives are determined by our experiences”?

    A) Babies are born with personalities that are relatively stable throughout their lives.

    B) IQ scores can change drastically (more than one standard deviation) after children are provided enriched environments.

    C) Reinforcements, like praise from caregivers, are the most powerful motivators for children.

    D) The political opinions of adopted children are closer to those of their adopted parents than those of their biological parents.

    E) Extremely stressful experiences can change overall optimistic explanatory styles into more pessimistic styles.

 

Definition
A) Babies are born with personalities that are relatively stable throughout their lives.
Term

 

  1. Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg mjuscle requires the neurotransmitter known as

    A) dopamine

    B) epinephrine

    C) acetylcholine

    D) insulin

    E) endorphin

 

Definition
C) acetylcholine
Term

 

  1. Which endocrine gland regulates body growth?

    A) parathyroid

    B) adrenal

    C) thyroid

    D) pituitary

    E) pancreas

 

Definition
D) pituitary
Term

  1. Many genes respond to environmental conditions, reacting to different environmental contexts in different ways. This characteristic of genes is called what?

    A) chromosomes

    B) genotype

    C) heritability

    D) self regulation

    E) evolution

 

Definition
D) self regulation
Term

 

  1. To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school's students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n)

    A) population

    B) representative sample

    C) independent variable

    D) control condition

    E) dependent variable

 

Definition
A) population
Term

 

  1. Who would have been most likely to ignore mental processes and to define psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior”?

    A) John B. Watson

    B) Edward Titchener

    C) Wilhelm Wundt

    D) Jean Piaget

    E) William James

 

Definition
A) John B. Watson
Term

 

  1. Which type of psychologist most directly investigates the links between biological activity and our thinking and behaviors?

    A) behaviorist

    B) psychotherapist

    C) biological psychologist

    D) cognitive psychologist

    E) psychometrician

 

Definition
C) biological psychologist
Term

 

  1. Someone who has difficulty speaking after a stroke is suffering from which of the following?

    A) neurogenesis

    B) lesion

    C) aphasia

    D) angular gyrus

    E) interneurons

 

Definition
C) aphasia
Term

 

  1. Dr. Donelian wants to reduce his students' perception that psychological experiments merely document the obvious. His best strategy would be to ask the students to

    A) describe how experimental hypotheses were derived from basic psychological principles.

    B) predict the outcomes of experiments before they are told the actual results.

    C) explain the outcomes of experiments after they are told the actual results.

    D) personally engage in naturalistic observation.

    E) Survey students living on campus.

 

Definition
B) predict the outcomes of experiments before they are told the actual results.
Term

 

  1. The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called

    A) hormones

    B) neurotransmitters

    C) synapses

    D) sensory neurons

    E) motor neurons.

 

Definition
B) neurotransmitters
Term

 

  1. Dr. Roberts hypothesized that students in a classroom seating 30 would get higher course grades than students seated in an auditorium seating 300. In this example,

    A) Dr. Roberts has found a cause-effect relationship.

    B) Dr. Roberts has found a positive correlation between classroom size and course grades.

    C) The independent variable is the measurement of course grades.

    D) classroom size has been operationally defined.

    E) Dr. Roberts has demonstrated the importance of random sampling.

 

Definition
D) classroom size has been operationally defined.
Term

 

  1. A person with schizophrenia may have an overactive dopamine system. Drugs used to treat this disorder prevent the action of dopamine by keeping it from binding to its receptors. These drugs are

    A) agonists

    B) somatic

    C) sympathetic

    D) antagonists

    E) selectively permeable

 

Definition
D) antagonists
Term

 

  1. The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ­___________ than on their _________.

    A) personality; political attitudes

    B) extraversion; table manners

    C) religious beliefs; personality traits

    D) DNA; genes

    E) shyness; social group

 

Definition
C) religious beliefs; personality traits
Term

 

  1. To trigger a person's hand to make a fist, Jose Delgado stimulated the individual's

    A) motor cortex

    B) hypothalamus

    C) sensory cortex

    D) reticular formation

    E) limbic system

 

Definition
A) motor cortex
Term

 

  1. If a genetic predisposition to fear darkness contributes to reproductive success, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates

    A) mutation

    B) psychopathology

    C) behavior genetics

    D) environment

    E) natural selection

 

Definition
E) natural selection
Term

 

  1. Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to male-female genetic differences because

    A) physical maturation proceeds at a different rate for males and females

    B) variations in personality contribute to gender differences

    C) heritable traits can be influenced by social environments

    D) males and females are also affected by their different sex hormones

    E) chromosomal adaptation has not been accounted for

 

Definition
C) heritable traits can be influenced by social environments
Term

 

  1. Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between

    A) facts and theories

    B) causes and effects

    C) case studies and surveys

    D) random samples and representative samples

    E) hypotheses and operational definitions

 

Definition
B) causes and effects
Term

 

  1. Research into dual processing provides partial evidence for levels of consciousness similar to the levels first described by which psychologist?

    A) B. F. Skinner

    B) Wilhelm Wundt

    C) Sigmund Freud

    D) Mary Calkins

    E) Edward Titchener

 

Definition
C) Sigmund Freud
Term

 

  1. Sleep researchers who are interested in brain wave activity are likely to use which kind of brain scan?

    A) EEG

    B) CT

    C) fMRI

    D) PET

    E) MRI

 

Definition
A) EEG
Term

 

  1. Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to emphasize that human adaptiveness to a variety of different environments has contributed to human

    A) naturalistic observation

    B) genetic mutations

    C) behavior correlations

    D) reproductive success

    E) prenatal development

 

Definition
D) reproductive success
Term

 

  1. Your ability to experience the physical pleasure of a hot shower is most likely to be disrupted by damage to your

    A) corpus callosum

    B) angular gyrus

    C) hyppocampus

    D) amygdala

    E) thalamus

 

Definition
E) thalamus
Term

 

  1. The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a specific environment is known as

    A) heritability

    B) behavior genetics

    C) natural selection

    D) genome

    E) cloning

 

Definition
C) natural selection
Term

 

  1. A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on

    A) skin color

    B) sexual anatomy

    C) physical attractiveness

    D) personality traits

    E) emotional stability

 

Definition
D) personality traits
Term

 

  1. An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ­_______ is linked to seizures.

    A) glutamate

    B) GABA

    C) serotonin

    D) ACh

    E) dopamine

 

Definition
B) GABA
Term

 

  1. Arguments as to whether psychological differences between men and women result from biological or social influences most clearly involve a debate over the issue of

    A) evolution versus natural selection

    B) stage development versus continuous development

    C) structuralism versus functionalism

    D) behavior versus mental processes

    E) nature versus nurture

 

Definition
E) nature versus nurture
Term

 

  1. Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease is influenced by

    A) hormones

    B) synapses

    C) heredity

    D) natural selection

    E) environment

 

Definition
C) heredity
Term

 

  1. Chromosomes are composed of

    A) hormones

    B) synapses

    C) nuclei

    D) neurotransmitters

    E) deoxyribonucleic acid

 

Definition
E) deoxyribonucleic acid
Term

 

  1. Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?

    A) parietal

    B) temporal

    C) occipital

    D) frontal

    E) cerebral

 

Definition
A) parietal
Term

 

  1. The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a(n)

    A) clinical psychologist

    B) industrial-organizational psychologist

    C) developmental psychologist

    D) psychiatrist

    E) biological psychologist

 

Definition
D) psychiatrist
Term

 

  1. To estimate trait heritability, researchers are most likely to make use of

    A) cloning

    B) natural selection

    C) interaction

    D) twin studies

    E) DNA

 

Definition
D) twin studies
Term

 

  1. In 1963, Stanley Milgram reported that 65% of research participants, at the request of the experimenter, would administer phony shocks that they considered real, to a stranger. He demonstrated how obedient humans can be to authority figures. Some critics contend that Milgram's findings cannot be used to predict behavior I real life. How might Milgram respond to this criticism?

    A) “Laboratory research is like 'real life' so results can be used to predict such behavior.”

    B) “It's impossible to study obedience in the real world so laboratory research is the only option”

    C) “Laboratory research allows you to identify general principles that do generalize to other real world contexts.”

    D) “All valuable psychological research is conducted in the lab.”

    E) “The situation was not artificial, but justifiable in demonstrating the impact of the situation on human behavior.”

 

Definition
C) “Laboratory research allows you to identify general principles that do generalize to other real world contexts.”
Term

 

  1. Our adaptive flexibility in responding to different environments contributes to our fitness, which refers to

    A) random errors in the replication of genes

    B) the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their differing genes.

    C) our ability to survive and reproduce

    D) the interaction of our genes with the environment

    E) our resistance to genetic mutations

 

Definition
C) our ability to survive and reproduce
Term

 

  1. Which of the following are located exclusively within the brain and spinal cord?

    A) sensory neurons

    B) motor neurons

    C) myelin sheath

    D) interneurons

    E) axons

 

Definition
D) interneurons
Term

 

  1. Which kind of researcher is most likely to examine chromosomal differences between a fraternal twin who experiences a learning disability and one who doesn't?

    A) developmental psychologist

    B) molecular geneticist

    C) evolutionary psychologist

    D) psychometrician

    E) learning theorist

 

Definition
B) molecular geneticist
Term

 

  1. Why is it incorrect to say that 50% heritability of intelligence means that the cause of your intelligence is 50% genetic and 50% environmental?

    A) because heritability accounts for variations among people, not in specific individuals

    B) because nurture controls intelligence levels, not nature

    C) because unrelated individuals share common genes

    D) because genes are the basis for our behavior, environment has no impact

    E) because heritability increases as environments change

 

Definition
A) because heritability accounts for variations among people, not in specific individuals
Term

 

  1. Compared with women, men are ________ likely to sacrifice to gain sex and ________ likely to perceive warm responses as a sexual come-on

    A) less; more

    B) more; less

    C) not; less

    D) more; more

    E) not; more

 

Definition
D) more; more
Term

 

  1. Dr. MacPherson believes that the way students organize and think about he information in their textbooks will strongly influence their ability to later remember and use what they have studied. Dr. MacPherson's ideas most directly exemplify the ______ perspective.

    A) social-cultural

    B) cognitive

    C) psychodynamic

    D) humanistic

    E) biological

 

Definition
B) cognitive
Term

 

  1. The neural system located at the border between the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the

    A) sensory cortex

    B) limbic system

    C) reticular formation

    D) peripheral nervous system

    E) cerebellum

 

Definition
B) limbic system
Term

 

  1. Motor neurons are an important part of the

    A) limbic system

    B) reticular formation

    C) peripheral nervous system

    D) brainstem

    E) motor cortex

 

Definition
C) peripheral nervous system
Term

 

  1. Mamie is terrified of spiders. She tells her best friend, “Everybody in my family is afraid of spiders, so it must be genetic.” Using the biopsychosocial approach to understanding her behavior, Mamie should

    A) reduce her experiences with spiders to her immediate sensations and feelings

    B) focus on possible unconscious motivations for her fears

    C) examine additional psychological and social-cultural influences on fear

    D) examine how fear is adaptive and has contributed to her ancestors' survival

    E) explore how her perceptions affect her fear of spiders

 

Definition
C) examine additional psychological and social-cultural influences on fear
Term

 

  1. Our lips are more sensitive than our knees to sensations of touch due to which of the following?

    A) More neurotransmitters are released when the lips are touched

    B) A larger area of the sensory cortex is associated with our lips

    C) The dendrites connected to the lips are especially sensitive

    D) The medulla routes impulses from the lips directly to our brainstem

    E) Our lips are directly connected to the sensory cortex, but our knees are not

 

Definition
B) A larger area of the sensory cortex is associated with our lips
Term

 

  1. A picture of a dog is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a split-brain patient. At the same time a picture of a boy is flashed in the right visual field. In identifying what she saw, the patient would be most likely to

    A) use her left hand to point to a picture of a dog

    B) verbally report that she saw a dog

    C) use her left hand to point to a picture of a boy

    D) verbally report that she saw a boy

    E) communicate that she saw a picture of a boy with a dog.

 

Definition
D) verbally report that she saw a boy
Term

 

  1. Psychologist Michael Gazzaniga asked split-brain patients to stare at a dot as he flashed HE*ART on a screen. HE appeared in their left visual field, ART in the right. When asked to point to the word with their left hand, patients pointed to

    A) HE

    B) ART

    C) HEART

    D) EA

    E) nothing. They were unable to complete the task

 

Definition
A) HE
Term

 

  1. Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter

    A) dopamine

    B) epinephrine

    C) acetylcholine

    D) serotonin

    E) GABA

 

Definition
A) dopamine
Term

 

  1. Researchers found that women rated men higher as potential long-term mates when they spent more time looking at baby pictures. This finding suggests that

    A) women are drawn to youthful, healthy appearing men

    B) women prefer men who express interest in caring for joint offspring

    C) men approach sex as being more relational

    D) women have a lower threshold for perceiving warm responses as sexual

    E) men are less attracted to women who are likely to reproduce

 

Definition
B) women prefer men who express interest in caring for joint offspring
Term

 

  1. A researcher who assess the heritability of intelligence is most likely a(n)

    A) humanist

    B) evolutionary psychologist

    C) behavior geneticist

    D) social psychologist

    E) behaviorist

 

Definition
B) evolutionary psychologist
Term

 

  1. The complete set of genetic instructions in an organism's chromosomes is called the

    A) heritability index

    B) DNA molecule

    C) genome

    D) schema

    E) zygote

 

Definition
C) genome
Term

 

  1. Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?

    A) behavioral

    B) cognitive

    C) biological

    D) social-cultural

    E) psychodynamic

 

Definition
B) cognitive
Term

 

  1. Studies of identical twins who had been reared apart most clearly highlight the importance of ________ in personality development.

    A) natural selection

    B) mutation

    C) adoptive relatives

    D) home environments

    E) genetic predispositions

 

Definition
E) genetic predispositions
Term

The basilar membrane is located in the

A. middle ear

B. auditory canal

C. semicircular canal

D. cochlea

E. feature detector

Definition
D. cochlea
Term

John Locke would have suggested that a perceptual set results from

A. retinal disparity

B. psychokinesis

C. natural selection

D. prior experience

E. genetics

Definition
D. prior experience
Term

Alex tickles his brother by stroking adjacent ________ spots on his skin.

A. pressure

B. warmth

C. cold

D. pain

E. kinesthesis

Definition
A. pressure
Term

Joe Wilson, age 55, has been told by experts that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing.  It is likely that Joe's hearing loss involves problems within the

A. inner ear

B. middle ear

C. auditory nerve

D. basilar membrane

E. oval window

Definition
B. middle ear
Term

Visual information is processed by

A. feature detectors before it is processed by rods and cones

B. ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors

C. bipolar cells before it is processed by rods and cones

D. feature detectors before it is processed by bipolar cells

E. the optic nerve before it is processed by ganglion cells

Definition
b. ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors
Term

The coiled, fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses is called the

A. eustachian tube

B. auditory canal

C. semicircular canal

D. cochlea

E. vestibular apparatus

Definition
D. cochlea
Term

Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups.  A stereotype is most similar to

A. a feature detector

B. perceptual adaptation

C. a perceptual set

D. a differencce threshold

E. gate-control theory

Definition
C. a perceptual set
Term

Hair cells line the surface of the

A. feature detectors

B. eardrum

C. basilar membrane

D. auditory nerve

E. fovea

Definition
C. basilar membrane
Term

The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50% of the time is called the

A. adaptation threshold

B. difference threshold

C.subliminal threshold

D. absolute threshold

E. change threshhold

Definition
D. absolute threshold
Term

The sequentially flashing Christmas tree lights appeared to generate pulsating waves of motion.  This best illustrates

A. relative motion

B. retinal disparity

C. the phi phenomenon

D. frequency theory

E. perceptual adaptation

Definition
C. the phi phenomenon
Term

Psychologist Michael Gazzaniga asked split-brain patients to stare at a dot as he flashed HE*ART on a screen.  HE appeared in the left visual field, ART in the right.  When asked to point to the word with their left hand, patients pointed to

A. HE

B. ART

C. HEART

D. EA

E. nothing.  They were unable to complete the task

Definition
A. HE
Term

A stroke patient can recognize the sound of his wife's voice but cannot recognize the sound of his wife's voice but cannot recognize her face when she stands next to him.  Which brain region has most likely been damaged?

A. the visual cortex in the occipital lobe

B. the underside of the right temporal lobe

C. Wernicke's area in the left temporal lobe

D. the hippocampus in the limbic system

E. the reticular formation in the brain stem

Definition
B. the underside of the right temporal lobe
Term

After chicks were fitted with special lenses that visually displaced objects to the left they

A. quickly learned to compensate by pecking to the left of where the food appeared to be

B. only gradually learned to compensate by pecking to the right of where the food appeared to be

C. only gradually learned to compensate by pecking to the left of where the food appeared to be

D. never adapted to the visual distortion

E. immediately adapted and pecked successfully at the food

Definition
D. never adapted to the visual distortion
Term

Many researchers believe that pleasing tastes attracted our ancestors to energy - or protein rich foods that enabled their survival.  Such researchers are most likely

A. behavior geneticists

B. behaviorists

C. evolutionary psychologists

D. molecular geneticists

E. neuropsychologists

Definition
C. evolutionary psychologists
Term

The pitch of a sound is determined by what?

A. the frequency of the sound wave

B. the amplitude of the sound wave

C. the loudness of the sound wave

D. the decibel level of the sound wave

E. vestibular level of the sound wave

Definition
B. the frequency of the sound wave
Term
An elderly couple had been experiencing declining memories, so they decided to take a power memory class where one is taught to remember things by association.

A few days after the class, the old man was outside talking with his neighbor about how much the class helped him.

"What was the name of the Instructor?" asked the neighbor.

"Oh, ummmm, let's see," the old man pondered. "You know that flower, you know, the one that smells really nice but has those prickly thorns, what's that flower's name?"

"A rose?" asked the neighbor.

"Yes, that's it," replied the old man. He then turned toward his house and shouted, "Hey, Rose, what's the name of the Instructor we took the memory class from?"
Definition
This is very psychology-like
Term

An 80 decibel sound is _______ times louder than a 60 decibel sound.

A. 2

B. 10

C. 20

D. 100

E. 200

Definition
D. 100
Term

After listening to your high volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting.  This best illustrates

A. Weber's law

B. accomodation

C. sensory adaptation

D. the volley principle

E. transduction

 

Definition
C. sensory adaptation
Term

If a genetic predisposition to fear darkness contributes to reproductive success, that trait will likely be passed to subsequent generations.  This best illustrates

A. mutation

B. psychopathology

C. behavior genetics

D. environment

E. natural selection

 

Definition
E. natural selection
Term

According to frequency theory

A. most sound waves are a complex mixture of many frequencies

B. high frequency sound waves trigger a wave of activity that peaks at the beginning of the basilar membrane

C. the rate at which impulses travel up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of the tone being heard

D. frequent or prolonged stimulation of a sensory receptor causes that receptor to become less sensitive

E. we hear different pitches because different sound waves cause different parts of the nerve cells in the cochlea to fire

Definition
C. the rate at which impulses travel up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of the tone being heard
Term

Current research suggests that

A. the Young-Helmholtz theory best explains how we experience color

B. opponent process theory is the most comprehensive theory for explaining color vision

C. both the trichromatic and opponent process theories are valid in explaining color vision

D. both the Young-Helmholtz and opponent process theories are wrong in explaining color vision

E. frequency theory shows promise in explaining how we experience color vision

Definition
C. both the trichromatic and opponent process theories are valid in explaining color vision
Term

Depth perception that uses information transmitted on only one eye depends on

A. relative luminance

B. stroboscopic movement

C. lightness constancy

D. monocular cues

E. perceptual adaptation

Definition
D. monocular cues
Term

The role of the central nervous system activity for the experience of pain is best highlighted by

A. prosopagnosia

B. frequency theory

C. phantom limb sensations

D. the opponent process theory

E. perceptual adaptation

Definition
C. phantom limb sensations
Term

Movement of the hair cells along the basilar membrane

A. allows us to sense our body's position and movement

B. causes the olfactory bulb to send signals to the primary smell cortex

C. initiates transduction and the transmission of neural messages to the auditory cortex

D. stimulates the taste receptor cells and helps us distinguish between different taste sensations

E. produces large fiber activity in the spinal cord that closes the "gate" so we don't feel pain

Definition
C. initiates transduction and the transmission of neural messages to the auditory cortex
Term

As the text notes "Once we have formed a wrong idea about reality, we have more difficulties seeing the truth."  This best illustrates the impact of

A. synaesthesia

B. the phi phenomenon

C. top-down processing

D. retinal disparity

E. transduction

Definition
C. top-down processing
Term

Although textbooks frequently cast a trapezoidal image on the retina, students typically perceive the books as rectangular objects.  This illustrates the importance of

A. interposition

B. size constancy

C. linear perspective

D. shape constancy

E. binocular cues

Definition
D. shape constancy
Term


A very shy guy goes into a bar and sees a beautiful woman sitting at the bar. After an hour of gathering up his courage, he finally goes over to her and asks, tentatively, "Um, would you mind if I chatted with you for a while?"

She responds by yelling, at the top of her lungs, "NO! I won't sleep with you tonight!" Everyone in the bar is now staring at them. Naturally, the guy is hopelessly and completely embarrassed and he slinks back to his table.

After a few minutes, the woman walks over to him and apologizes. She smiles at him and says, "I'm sorry if I embarrassed you. You see, I'm a graduate student in psychology, and I'm studying how people respond to embarrassing situations."

To which he responds, at the top of his lungs, "What do you mean $200?!"

Definition
HAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA now that's funny
Term

When researchers added a few drops of vinegar to a brand name beer, the beer tasters disliked it only if they had been told they were drinking vinegar laced beer.  This best illustrates the impact of

A. kinesthesis

B. interposition

C. perpetual set

D. the McGurk effect

E. feature detectors

Definition
C. perpetual set
Term

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the

A. thyroid gland

B. pituitary gland

C. parathyroids

D. adrenal glands

E. pancreas

Definition
D. adrenal glands
Term

By amplifying soft sounds but not loud sounds, digital hearing aids produce

A. sensory interaction

B. compressed sound

C. subliminal stimulation

D. sensory compensation

E. feature detectors

Definition
B. compressed sound
Term

Prozac, a drug commonly prescribed to treat depression, prevents the sending neuron from taking in excess serotonin.  Which process does this process prevent from taking place?

A. depolarization

B. reuptake

C. the all or none response

D. an action potential

E. refractory period

Definition
B. reuptake
Term

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences and attitudes towards sex to the fact that men have _______ than do women.

 A. larger bodies

B. stronger personalities

C. a weaker sense of empathy

D. greater reproductive potential

E. more insecurities

Definition
D. greater reproductive potential
Term

After noting that the majority of professional basketball players are African American, Ervin concluded that African Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups.  Ervin's conclusion best illustrates the danger of

A. replication

B. hindsight bias

C. the placebo effect

D. generalizing from vivid cases

E. randomly assigning variables

Definition
D. generalizing from vivid cases
Term

Which of the following structures in the brain stem helps coordinate movements and lies above the medulla?

A. reticular formation

B. hippocampus

C. pons

D. thalamus

E. hypothalamus

Definition
C. pons
Term

The convergence of parallel lines provides the distance cue known as

A. interposition

B. closure

C. relative height

D. linear perspective

E. continuity

Definition
D. linear perspective
Term

Parapsychology refers to the

A. study of phenomena such as ESP and psychokinesis

B. study of perceptual illusions

C. study of the phi phenomenon

D. direct transmission of thoughts from one mind to another

E. direct transduction of energy into neural impulses

Definition
A. study of phenomena such as ESP and psychokinesis
Term

The amplitude of electromagnetic waves determines the _________ of light.

A. absolute threshold

B. brightness

C. hue

D. difference threshold

E. wavelength

Definition
B. brightness
Term

Standing atop a mountain on an utterly dark, clear night, most of us would see a candle flame atop another mountain 30 miles away.  This best illustrates

A. priming

B. transduction

C. the absolute threshold

D. a just noticable difference

E. place theory

Definition
C. the absolute threshold
Term

The cochlea is a

A. fluid filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses

B. a fluid filled tube that provides a sense of upright body position

C. a fluid filled tube that provides a sense of body movement

D. a set of 3 tiny bones that amplify the vibrations of the eardrum

E. a specific area of the auditory cortex

Definition
A. fluid filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
Term

When informed that a brief and imperceptable message would be flashed repeatedly during a popular TV program, many viewers reported feeling strangely hungry or thirsty during the show.  Since the imperceptable message had nothing to do with hunger or thirst, viewers strange reactions best illustrate

A. the McGurk effect

B. sensory adaptation

C. the volley principle

D. a placebo effect

E. accomodation

Definition
D. a placebo effect
Term

With her eyes closed and her nose plugged, Chandra was unable to taste the difference between an onion and a pear.  Her experience best illustrates the importance of

A. sensory interaction

B. sensory transduction

C. sensory adaptation

D. accomodation

E. subliminal stimulation

Definition
A. sensory interaction
Term

According to opponent process theory, cells that are stimulated by exposure to _______ light are inhibited by exposure to _______ light.

A. red; blue

B. blue; green

C. yellow; green

D. blue; red

E. yellow; blue

Definition
E. yellow; blue
Term

The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called

A. neurotransmitters

B. interneurons

C. hormones

D. agonists

E. antagonists

Definition
C. hormones
Term

Hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to _______ as recognizing the sound sequence as a familiar melody is to ________.

A. the just noticable difference; accomodation

B. absolute threshold; difference threshold

C. sensory interaction; feature detection

D. feature detection; sensory interaction

E. sensation; perception

Definition
E. sensation; perception
Term

Perceptual adaptation refers to the

A. grouping of stimuli into smooth uninterrupted patterns

B. perception of movement created by the successive blinking of adjacent lights

C. perception of an object as unchanging in shape regardless of our own viewing angle.

D. perceptual adjustment to an artificially displaced visual field

E. tendency for novel or unfamiliar stimuli to capture our attention

Definition
D. perceptual adjustment to an artificially displaced visual field
Term

The 130 decibel sound of a rock band is ______ times louder than the 100 decibel sound of a nearby subway train.

A. 2

B. 10

C. 30

D. 100

E. 1000

Definition
E. 1000
Term

After learning that a new school friend had experienced several episodes of depression during junior high, Erin incorrectly perceived her friend's laughter as artificial and phony.  This best illustrates the impact of

A. interposition

B. perceptual set

C. clairvoyance

D. the phi phenomenon

E. opponent process theory

Definition
B. perceptual set
Term

Identical twins seperated at birth would most likely have similar

A. political ideas

B. religious beliefs

C. personalities

D. norms

E. food preferences

Definition
C. personalities
Term

The steadily increasing size of a retinal image of an approaching object is especially important for perceiving the object's

A. shape

B. motion

C. height

D. weight

E. color

Definition
B. motion
Term

Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously percieve the large book on the coffee table in front of her, yet when asked to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book title. Her response best illustrates

A. subliminal perception

B. sensory adaptation

C. synaesthesia

D. blindsight

E. the McGurk effect

Definition
D. blindsight
Term

Which theory best explains the occurance of afterimages?

A. trichromatic

B. opponent process

C. place

D. frequency

E. signal detection

Definition
B. opponent process
Term

The amount of light entering the light is regulated by the

A. lens

B. iris

C. retina

D. optic nerve

E. feature detectors

Definition
B. iris
Term

Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear flowers.  This best illustrates the impact of _______ on learning.

A. spontaneous recovery

B. conditioned reinforcers

C. shaping

D. cognitive processes

E. biological predispositions

Definition
E. biological predispositions
Term

Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote

A. shaping

B. survival

C. extrinsic motivation

D. prosocial behavior

E. social interaction

Definition
B. survival
Term

Golf instruction that reinforces short putts before attempting to reinforce long putts best illustrates the process of

A. generalization

B. shaping

C. modeling

D. discrimination

E. delayed reinforcement

Definition
B. shaping
Term

Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to

A. punishing

B. extinguishing

C. discriminating

D. modeling

E. generalizing

Definition
D. modeling
Term

In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?

A. observational learning

B. classical conditioning

C. operant conditioning

D. latent learning

E. insight

Definition
C. operant conditioning
Term

Rhesus macaque monkey are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older macaque monkeys.  This best illustrates the impact of
A. observational learning

B. immediate reinforcement

C. spontaneous recovery

D. respondent behavior

E. shaping

Definition
A. observational learning
Term

Innately satisfying stimuli that fulfill biological needs are called _______ reinforcers.

A. fixed

B. primary

C. positive

D. continuous

E. unconditioned

Definition
B. primary
Term

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise.  In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)

A. unconditioned stimulus

B. unconditioned response

C. conditioned stimulus

D. conditioned response

E. preconditioned stimulus

Definition
A. unconditioned stimulus
Term

Alexis is addicted to drugs.  The room in which she usually takes them is likely to become a(n) ________ for drug cravings.

A. primary reinforcer

B. operant chamber

C. US

D. CS

E. CR

Definition
D. CS
Term

Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad.  Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of

A. habituation

B. latent learning

C. generalization

D. delayed reinforcement

E. shaping

Definition
C. generalization
Term

Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by

A. cognitive processes

B. biological predispositions

C. environmental factors

D. continuous reinforcement

E. latent learning

Definition
B. biological predispositions
Term

Watson to the study of learning?

A. He challenged the prevailing belief that all associations can be learned equally well

B. He demonstrated that the more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned response

C. He showed how the law of effect can be used to teach new behaviors

D. He explained how partial reinforcement schedules can be used to maintain learned behaviors

E. He demonstrated how some emotions and behaviors can be learned by classical conditioning

Definition
E. He demonstrated how some emotions and behaviors can be learned by classical conditioning
Term

Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she begines to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb.  This best illustrates the process of

A. generalization

B. extinction

C. classical conditioning

D. latent learning

E. operant conditioning

Definition
E. operant conditioning
Term

Dr. Kingston emphasizes that learned fears reflect the interacting influences of a person's inborn emotional reactivity, family life history, and capacity to generalize from previous experiences.  Dr. Kingston's emphasis best illustrates

A. behaviorism

B. the law of effect

C. prosocial behavior

D. a biopsychosocial approach

E. cognitive-behavioral approach

Definition
D. a biopsychosocial approach
Term

Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors.  This is an example of

A. latent learning

B. instinctive drift

C. the law of effect

D. spontaneous recovery

E. operant conditioning

Definition
B. instinctive drift
Term

Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?

A. studying to be prepared for unexpected quizzes

B. inserting coins into a slot machine

C. paying a cashier for a candy bar

D. checking the mailbox to see if the mail has arrived

E. assembling car parts in a factory

Definition
B. inserting coins into a slot machine
Term

B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E.L. Thorndike had called

A. shaping

B. behaviorism

C. observational learning

D. the law of effect

E. latent learning

Definition
D. the law of effect
Term

Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks

A. experience extinction

B. underwent spontaneous recovery

C. developed learned helplessness

D. experienced a discriminative stimulus

E. developed a conditioned reinforcer

Definition
C. developed learned helplessness
Term

Which of the following terms best describes an operant behavior?

A. automatic

B. reflexive

C. voluntary

D. instinctive

E. unlearned

Definition
C. voluntary
Term

A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to enter 20 elevators a day.  The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the ________ of the patient's fear.

A. generalization

B. latent learning

C. shaping

D. extinction

E. reinforcement

Definition
D. extinction
Term

Closing your bedroom door so that you won't hear the TV that is interfereing with your studying is an example of

A. positive reinforcement

B. conditioned reinforcers

C. partial reinforcement

D. negative reinforcement

E. punishment

Definition
D. negative reinforcement
Term

Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ________ reinforcer.

A. positive

B. negative

C. secondary

D. partial

E. delayed

Definition
B. negative
Term

Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face.  This best illlustrates

A. shaping

B. generalization

C. the law of effect

D. negative reinforcement

E. punishment

Definition
B. generalization
Term

To teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as

A. classical conditioning

B. delayed reinforcement

C. latent learning

D. generalization

E. shaping

Definition
E. shaping
Term

Who would most likely agree with the following statement concerning the field of psychology? "Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior.  Introspection forms no exxential part of its mehtods."

A. Albert Bandura

B. John Garcia

C. John B. Watson

D. Carl Rogers

E. Sigmund Freud

Definition
C. John B. Watson
Term

Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning.  This suggests that associative learning involves

A. negative reinforcement

B. cognitive processes

C. spontaneous recovery

D. shaping

E. continuous reinforcement

Definition
B. cognitive processes
Term

Most animals are best conditioned through reinforcers delivered immediately after the desired behavior is performed.  What are these reinforcers called?

A. unconditioned

B. conditioned

C. partial

D. immediate

E. primary

Definition
D. immediate
Term

The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of good grades as _______ is to _______.

A. delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer

B. primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer

C. discrimination; generalization

D. partial reinforcement; continous reinforcement

E. operant conditioning; classical conditioning

Definition
B. primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
Term

Your heart may race when confronted by a lion but not when approached by a kitten.  This best illustrates the adaptive value of

A. shaping

B. discrimination

C. extrinsic motivation

D. spontaneous recovery

E. negative reinforcement

 

Definition
B. discrimination
Term

A dramatic increase in children's violent play immediately after they viewed a video of the Power Rangers illustrates the role of television as a source of

A. respondent behavior
B. spontaneous recovery

C. negative reinforcement

D. observational learning

E. intermittent reinforcement

Definition
D. observational learning
Term

The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.

A. acquisition; extinction

B. negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer

C. primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer

D. punishment; reinforcement

E. partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement

Definition
D. punishment; reinforcement
Term

A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n)

A. conditioned stimulus

B. unconditioned stimulus

C. unconditioned stimulus

D. conditioned stimulus

E. neutral stimulusu

Definition
D. conditioned stimulus
Term

Researchers discovered that the regions of the frontal lobe activated when a monkey moves peanuts to its own mouth are also activated when the monkey simply observes other monkeys move peanuts to their mouths.  This discovery pointed to the significance of

A. intrinsic motives

B. mirror neurons

C. extrinsic motives

D. cognitive maps

E. unconditioned stimuli

Definition
B. mirror neurons
Term

Using an operant chamber, Skinner timed food pellets to drop every 15 minutes.  If a rat was in a certain location just before the food was presented, the rat went to that location more frequently even though it was not directly tied to the appearance of food.  Which of the following best explains this superstitious behavior?

A. learning sometimes becomes apparent when there is some incentive to demonstrate it

B. reinforcement for a task already enjoyed can backfire, redicing intrinsic motivation

C. a continuous reinforcement schedule will lead to the most rapid learning

D. conditioned reinforcers get their power through learned associateion with primary reinforcers

E. any behavior that is accidentally reinforced is more likely to be repeated

Definition
E. any behavior that is accidentally reinforced is more likely to be repeated
Term

An allergy attack triggered by the sight of plastic flowers best illustrates the process of

A. latent learning

B. delayed reinforcement

C. generalization

D. secondary reinforcement

E. spontaneous recovery

Definition
C. generalization
Term

John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n)

A. physiological psychologist

B. cognitive psychologist

C. behaviorist

D. psychoanalyst

E. operant conditioner

Definition
C. behaviorist
Term

Which of the following best illustrates higher-order conditioning?

A. a dog conditioned to salivate to a low-pitched tone

B. a little boy who doesn't run into the street after being reprimanded by his mother

C. a rat that has developoed a taste aversion to a vanilla-flavored solution paired with a drug

D. a pigeon in a Skinner box that learns to peck at a button to receive a food pellet

E. a child who fears dogs after being bitten shows fear when she hears a dog bark

Definition
E. a child who fears dogs after being bitten shows fear when she hears a dog bark
Term

After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal.  Mr. Sterber's reaction most clearly illustrates

A. negative reinforcement

B. observational learning

C. learned helplessness

D. partial reinforcement

E. latent learning

Definition
C. learned helplessness
Term

As you enter the kitchen after school you can smell chocolate chip cookies baking. This scent causes you to salivate.  Your salivation is best explained by

A. classical conditioning

B. observational learning

C. habituation

D. operant conditioning

E. latent learning

Definition
A. classical conditioning
Term

Professor Kohler observed chimpanzees discover a novel way to reach a banana hung out of their reach.  This scenario is most likely an example of which type of learning?

A. operant conditioning

B. classicial conditioning

C. observational learning

D. insight learning

E. latent learning

Definition
D. insight learning
Term

The way slow machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates

A. spontaneous recovery

B. partial reinforcement

C. generalization

D. shaping

E. continuous reinforcement

Definition
B. partial reinforcement
Term

The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called

A. generalization

B. spontaneous recovery

C. secondary reinforcement

D. latent learning

E. shaping

Definition
B. spontaneous recovery
Term

Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as _________ is to ________.

A. positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

B. primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer

C. immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer

D. reinforcement; punishment

E. partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement

Definition
A. positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
Term

A Skinner box is a(n)

A. soundproofed cubicle in which organisms are classically conditioned in the absence of distracting noise

B. aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurence of certain undersirable behaviors

C. "slot marchine" used to study the effects of partialreinforcement on human gambling practices

D. chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward

E. television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational learning

Definition
D. chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward
Term

A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.

A. delayed

B. negative

C. partial

D. conditioned

E. positive

Definition
D. conditioned
Term

Psychologists are skeptical about the existence of ESP because

A. ESP researchers frequently accept evidence that they know is faudulent

B. there is no way to scientifically test claims of ESP

C. many apparent demonstrations of ESP have been shown to be staged illusions

D. ESP experiments show the impact of ESP, but correlational studies do not

E. researchers have difficulty finding participants for ESP studies

Definition
C. many apparent demonstrations of ESP have been shown to be staged illusions
Term

The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by

A. the Young-Helmholtz theory

B. the gate-control theory

C. place theory

D. frequency theory

E. the opponent-process theory

Definition
A. the Young-Helmholtz theory
Term

Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the

A. optic nerve

B. sensory receptors

C. cerebral cortex

D. feature detectors

E. occipital lobe

Definition
B. sensory receptors
Term

If an adult develops cataracts, his or her

A. absolute threshold for light is likely to increase

B. differenct threshold for light is likely to decrease

C. absolute threshold for light is likely to decrease

D. difference threshold for light is likely to remain unchanged

E. absolute threshold for light is likely to remain the same

Definition
A. absolute threshold for light is likely to increase
Term

Which of the following best explains why children are more likely to resist eating strong-tasting foods?

A. sensory interaction makes certain foods more unpleasant to taste

B. young children have more taste receptors, so their sensitivity to taste is greater

C. children are more strongly influenced by the McGurk effect than adults are

D. receptor cells on a child's tongue are replaced more slowly than those of adults

E. only children are deterred from eating foods with aversive tastes

Definition
B. young children have more taste receptors, so their sensitivity to taste is greater
Term

The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called

A. evolutionary psychology

B. behavior genetics

C. molecular biology

D. biological psychology

E. phrenology

Definition
E. phrenology
Term

The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the

A. thresholds

B. dendrites

C. endocrine gland

D. myelin sheath

E. pituitary gland

Definition
D. myelin sheath
Term

People can simultaneously process many aspects of sensory information such as color, shape, and size.  This best illustrates the functioning of multiple

A. Ach agonists

B. dendrites

C. endorphins

D. neural networks
E. ACh antagonists

Definition
D. neural networks
Term

Psychoactive drugs interfere with normal neural transmission.  Where does this interference take place?

A. axon

B. cell body

C. myelin sheath

D. synapse

E. hormones

Definition
D. synapse
Term

Jose has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort.  His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of

A. glutamate

B. dopamine

C. acetylcholine

D. endorphins

E. insulin

Definition
D. endorphins
Term

The strenghtening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of

A. interneurons

B. endorphins

C. neural networks

D. glial cells

E. lesions

Definition
C. neural networks
Term

An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to

A. Alzheimer's disease

B. schizophrenia

C. Parkinson's disease

D. depression

E. euphoria

Definition
D. depression
Term

The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called

A. neurotransmitters

B. neural networks

C. synapses

D. axons

E. thresholds

Definition
C. synapses
Term

Reuptake refers to the

A. movement of neurotransmitter molecules across a synaptic gap

B. release of hormones into the bloodstream

C. inflow of positively charge ions through an axon membrane

D. reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecule by a sending neuron

E. the ending of the refractory period

Definition
D. reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecule by a sending neuron
Term

Sheelah was able to jerk her hand out of the scalding water before sensing any pain because this withdrawal reflex

A. was activated by interneurons in her spinal cord

B. did not involve activity in her central nervous system

C. was activated by the rapidly responding brain

D. was activated by her self-regulating autonomic nervous system

E. was controlled by both her nervous system and impulses from her endocrine system

Definition
A. was activated by interneurons in her spinal cord
Term

The master gland of the endocrine system is the

A. thyroid gland

B. adrenal gland

C. pituitary gland

D. pancreas

E. hypothalamus

Definition
C. pituitary gland
Term

The brains of patients with Parkinson's disease have little dopamine.  Drugs used to treat such patients bind to dopamine receptors, thereby stimulating those receptors.  These drugs would be considered

A. antagonists

B. sympathetic

C. selectively permeable

D. endorphins

E. agonists

Definition
E. agonists
Term

Botulin is a poison with a molecular structure so similar to acetylcholine (ACh) that it blocks the effects of ACh in synapses, making botulin which kind of molecule?

A. agonist

B. antagonist

C. endorphin

D. endocrine

E. autonomic

Definition
B. antagonist
Term

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)

A. sympathetic nerve

B. myelin sheath

C. endocrine gland

D. pituitary gland

E. synaptic vesicle

Definition
B. myelin sheath
Term

Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your digestive system's stomach muscles by the

A. endocrine system

B. central nervous system

C. sympathetic nervous system

D. somatic nervous system

E. glands

Definition
C. sympathetic nervous system
Term

The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called

A. neurotransmitters

B. interneurons

C. hormones

D. agonists

E. antagonists

Definition
C. hormones
Term

Who believed that bumps on the skull reveal mental abilities and character traits?

A. Sir Charles Sherrington

B. Stephen Kasslyn

C. Franz Gall

D. Candace Pert

E. Solomon Snyder

Definition
C. Franz Gall
Term

Which of the following are located exclusively within the brain and spinal cord?

A. sensory neurons

B. motor neurons

C. myelin sheath

D. interneurons

E. axons

Definition
D. interneurons
Term

Within a single neuron the action potential

A. is generated in the dendrites

B. will be slower if myelin is present

C. depends on the movement of charged calcium atoms

D. travels in one direction toward the axon terminals

E. crosses the synapse to the adjacent neurons

Definition
D. travels in one direction toward the axon terminals
Term

Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an

A. oversupply of GABA

B. undersupply of serotonin

C. oversupply of glutamate

D. undersupply of acetylcholine

E. oversupply of norepinephrine

Definition
C. oversupply of glutamate
Term

Motor neurons are to the ________ nervous system as interneurons are to the _______ nervous system.

A. sympathetic; parasympathetic

B. central; peripheral

C. autonomic; somatic

D. parasympathetic; sympathetic

E. peripheral; central

Definition
E. peripheral; central
Term

An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed hearbeat as the ________ nervous system is to the ________ nervous system.

A. somatic; autonomic

B. autonomic; somatic

C. central; peripheral

D. sympathetic; parasympathetic

E. parasympathetic; sympathetic

Definition
D. sympathetic; parasympathetic
Term

The axon of a resting neuron has gates that do not allow positive sodium ions to pass through the cell membrane.  What is this characteristic called?

A. myelin sheath

B. threshold

C. selective permeability

D. action potential

E. parasympathetic nervous system

Definition
C. selective permeability
Term

In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron.

A. cell body to the axon to the dendrites

B. dendrites to the axon to the cell body

C. axon to the cell body to the dendrites

D. dendrites to the cell body to the axon

E. axon to the dendrites to the cell body

Definition
D. dendrites to the cell body to the axon
Term

A synapse is a(n)

A. chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions

B. automatic response to sensory input

C. neural network

D. junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron

E. neural cable containing many axons

Definition
D. junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
Term

The function of dendrites is to

A. receive incoming signals from other neurons

B. release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons

C. coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

D. control pain through the release of opiate-like chemicals into the brain

E. transmit signals to other neurons

Definition
A. receive incoming signals from other neurons
Term

The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the

A. dendrite

B. axon

C. cell body

D. synapse

E. neurotransmitter

Definition
B. axon
Term

With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which

A. a neuron fires more rapidly than usual

B. an electrical charge travels from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron

C. positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane

D. an individual reflexively withdraws from a pain stimulus

E. dendrites transmit more electrical signals to axons.

Definition
E. dendrites transmit more electrical signals to axons.
Term

Your friend is taking her first psychology class.  She comes to you saying, "I don't understand why we are studying the brain; I thought this was a psychology class." Because of your background in psychology, your best response should be

A. "It's been known since Aristotle's time that the brain is the center of intelligence and thought."

B. "Phrenologists established the importance of studying the physical brain to understand mental abilities."

C. "Science has demonstrated that Plato's belief in the heart as the origin of emotion is correct."

D. "Everything psychological is simultaneously biological."

E. "Being able to name the parts of the brain helps us to understand the basis of behavior."

Definition
D. "Everything psychological is simultaneously biological."
Term

Resting potential is to action potential as ________ is to _______.

A. adrenal gland; pituitary gland

B. sensory neuron; motor neuron

C. temporal lobe; occipital lobe

D. polarization; depolarization

E. dendrite; axon

Definition
D. polarization; depolarization
Term

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the

A. synapse

B. agonist

C. action potential

D. myelin sheath

E. refractory period

Definition
C. action potential
Term

For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.

A. endocrines

B. interneurons

C. glands

D. motor neurons

E. sensory neurons

Definition
E. sensory neurons
Term

While relaxing in a lawn chair enjoying a cool drink, which of the following triggers the "rest-and-digest" response, as your heart rate slows and digestion begins?

A. sympathetic nervous system

B. limbic system

C. somatic nervous system

D. parasympathetic nervous system

E. motor cortex

Definition
D. parasympathetic nervous system
Term

Which endocrine gland regulates body growth?

A. parathyroid

B. adrenal

C. thyroid

D. pituitary

E. pancreas

Definition
D. pituitary
Term

Which type of psychologist most directly investigates the links between biological activity and our thinking and behaviors?

A. behaviorist

B. psychotherapist

C. biological psychologist

D. cognitive psychologist

E. psychometrician

Definition
C. biological psychologist
Term

When the release of ACh is blocked, the result is

A. depression

B. muscular paralysis

C. aggression

D. schizophrenia

E. euphoria

Definition
B. muscular paralysis
Term

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the

A. action potential

B. autonomic nervous system

C. endocrine system

D. peripheral nervous system

E. central nervous system

Definition
C. endocrine system
Term

The somatic nervous system is a component of the _______ nervous system.

A. peripheral

B. autonomic

C. central

D. sympathetic

D. parasympathetic

Definition
A. peripheral
Term

An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as _______ is linked to seizures.

A. glutamate

B. GABA

C. serotonin

D. ACh

E. dopamine

Definition
B. GABA
Term

Some opiate drugs have molecular structures so similar to endorphins that they mimic endorphin's euphoric effects in the brain, making these opiate drugs what kind of molecule?
A. agonists

B. antagonists

C. endorphins

D. endocrines

E. autonomics

Definition
A. agonists
Term

Mark believes that people are genetically predisposed to dislike bitter-tasting foods because this has enhanced human survival.  His belief best illustrates the ________ perspective.

A. psychodynamic

B. social-cultural

C. evolutionary

D. behavioral

E. cognitive

Definition
C. evolutionary
Term

A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a(n) __________ perspective.

A. evolutionary

B. psychodynamic

C. behavioral

D. social-cultural

E. cognitive

Definition
B. psychodynamic
Term

Dr. Kozak has concluded that the unusually low incidence of alcohol dependence among citizens of a small African country can be attributed to strong fundamentalist religious influences in that region.  This belief best illustrates a(n) _______ perspective.

A. humanistic

B. evolutionary

C. psychodynamic

D. biological

E. social-cultural

Definition
E. social-cultural
Term

Dr. Wilcox conducts basic research on the behavioral differences between shy and outgoing people.  Dr. Wilcox is most likely a(n) _______ psychologist.

A. clinical

B. biological

C. cognitive

D. industrial-organizational

E. personality

Definition
E. personality
Term

According to the text, the SQ3R study method is effective because it

A. demonstrates the power of unconscious processing

B. allows us to challenge our preconceptions

C. utilizes active processing of the text information

D. engages the whole brain, not just a small percentage

E. increases the investment you are making in studying psychology

Definition
C. utilizes active processing of the text information
Term

According to Emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose World War II.  The grandfather's claim best illustrates

A. the hindsight bias

B. illusory correlation

C. overconfidence

D. an illusion of control

E. random sampling

Definition
A. the hindsight bias
Term

To assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Ariana sent a questionnaire to every 15th person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students.  Ariana employed the technique of

A. random assignment

B. naturalistic observation

C. replication

D. correlation

E. random sampling

Definition
E. random sampling
Term

To compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request.  This best illustrates the use of the research method known as

A. the case study

B. naturalistic observation

C. random assignment

D. the double-blind procedure

E. the survey

Definition
B. naturalistic observation
Term

Variation is to central tendency as ______ is to _______.

 A. range; median

B. median; mean

C. mode; mean

D. scatterplot; bargraph

E. correlation; scatterplot

Definition
A. range; median
Term

On a ten item test, 3 students in Professor Hsin's advanced chemistry seminar recieved scores of 2, 5, and 8 respectively.  For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of

A. 3

B. 4

C. 5

D. 6

E. 9

Definition
D. 6
Term

Bob was in trouble. He forgot his wedding anniversary. His wife was
really pissed.

She told him "Tomorrow morning, I expect to find a gift in the
driveway that goes from 0 to 200 in 6 seconds AND IT BETTER BE THERE !!"

The next morning he got up early and left for work. When his wife woke
up, she looked out the window and sure enough there was a box
gift-wrapped in the middle of the driveway.

Confused, the wife put on her robe and ran out to the driveway, brought
the box back in the house.

She opened it and found a brand new bathroom scale.

 

Definition
Way to go Bob!
Term
A high school English teacher reminds her class of tomorrow's final exam.

"Now class, I won't tolerate any excuses for you not being there tomorrow. I might consider a nuclear attack or a serious personal injury or illness, or a death in your immediate family, but that's it, no other excuses whatsoever."

A smart ass guy in the back of the room raises his hand and asks, "What would you say if tomorrow I said I was suffering from complete and utter sexual exhaustion?"

The entire class does its best to stifle their laughter and snickering. When silence is restored, the teacher smiles sympathetically at the student, shakes her head, and sweetly says, "Well, I guess you'd have to write the exam with your other hand."
Definition
We're all in high school. It's funny and you know it.
Term
A passenger in a taxi tapped the driver on the shoulder to ask him something.

The driver screamed, lost control of the cab, nearly hit a bus, drove up
over the curb and stopped just inches from a large plate glass window.

For a few moments everything was silent in the cab, then the driver said, "Please,
don't ever do that again. You scared the daylights out of me."

The passenger, who was also frightened, apologized and said he didn't
realize that a tap on the shoulder could frighten him so much, to which the
driver replied, "I'm sorry, it's really not your fault at all. Today is my
first day driving a cab, I have been driving a hearse for the last 25 years.
Definition
Smile :D