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AP Psych second half
N/A
175
Psychology
12/10/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Unlike the use of algorithms or heuristics, insight does not involve

A. concepts

B. prototypes

C. cognition

D. strategy-based solutions

E. confirmation bias

Definition
D. strategy-based solutions
Term

AIDS is caused by a ________ infection spread primarily through ________.

A. viral; airborned molecules

B. bacterial; airborne molecules

C. viral; the exchange of bodily fluids

D. bacterial; the exchange of bodily fluids

E. viral; skin contact

Definition
C. viral; the exchange of bodily fluids
Term

The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for explaining an infant's urge to

A. cry

B. sleep

C. eat

D. explore

E. smile

Definition
D. explore
Term

Anger is to rage as fear is to

A. guilt

B. shame

C. pain

D. disgust

E. terror

Definition
E. terror
Term

A small cluster of neurons, the nucleus accumbens, is highly active when people experience

A. pleasure

B. anger

C. fear

D. depression

E. disgust

Definition
A. pleasure
Term

Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?

A. "Minimize your exposure to tempting foods."

B. "Accompany your diet with a sustained exercise program."

C. "Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening."

D. "Reduce your weight gradually over a period of many months."

E. "Eat simple meals with only a few different foods."

Definition
C. "Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening."
Term

Type A is to _________ as Type B is to _________.

A. realistic; idealistic

B. introverted; extraverted

C. hard-driving; easygoing

D. optimistic; pessimistic

E. anxious; neurotic

Definition
C. hard-driving; easygoing
Term

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent.  Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will

A. have a lower fat cell count.

B. experience a decrease in her feelings of hunger.

C. have a lower resting metabolic rate.

D. have a loewr set point for body weight.

E. decrease her number of fat cells.

Definition
C. have a lower resting metabolic rate.
Term

In their dispute over the role of cognition in emotion, both Zajonc and Lazarus agree that

A. cognitive reactions always precede emotional reactions.

B. emotional reactions always precede cognitive reactions.

C. some emotional reactions involve no conscious thinking.

D. cognitive reactions and emotional reactions always occur simultaneously.

E. emotional responses are not perceivable without conscious thinking.

Definition
C. some emotional reactions involve no conscious thinking.
Term

The term catharsis refers to emotional

A. disturbance

B. inhibition

C. release

D. adaptation

E. stress

Definition
C. release
Term

Generating the single correct answer to an intelligence test question illustrates

A. factor analysis

B. convergent thinking

C. reliability

D. standardization

E. the availability heuristic

 

Definition
B. convergent thinking
Term

The suggestion that we share a friend's feelings of joy if we smile with him or her best illustrates the logic of

A. the Cannon-Bard theory

B. the adaptation-level phenomenon

C. the James-Lange theory

D. the catharsis hypothesis

E. the relative deprivation theory

Definition
C. the James-Lange theory
Term

Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it's easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done.  This best illustrates the impact of

A. overconfidence

B. functional fixedness

C. the representativeness heuristic

D. confirmation bias

E. the availability heuristic

Definition
E. the availability heuristic
Term

Which of the following statements is the most accurate description of the relationship between genetics and eating disorders?

A. Eating disorders are not likely to be predisposed because they are caused by eating habits.

B. Identical twins are more likely to share the disorder than fraternal twins.

C. Body ideals in different cultures change the rates of eating disorders.

D. Fraternal twins are more likely to share the disorder than identical twins.

E. Higher rates of body dissatisfaction in women indicate a genetic predisposition for eating disorders.

Definition
B. Identical twins are more likely to share the disorder than fraternal twins.
Term

Jerome believes that his 4-year-old grandson is a hyperactive child because the boy's constant movement resembles Jerome's prototype of hyperactivity.  Jerome's thinking best illustrates

A. belief perseverance

B. the availability heuristic

C. the representativeness heuristic

D. functional fixedness

E. the framing effect

Definition
C. the representativeness heuristic
Term

Which theory can best explain the results of the experiment in which ocllege men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with either a euphoric or an irritated person?

A. Cannon-Bard theory

B. two-factor theory

C. James-Lange theory

D. adaptation-level theory

E. relative-deprivation theory

Definition
B. two-factor theory
Term

Students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects.  This best illustrates the impact of

A. framing

B. functional fixedness

C. the availability heuristic

D. the representativeness heuristic

E. overconfidence

Definition
E. overconfidence
Term

Compared with men, women would probably be better at

A. detecting the emotions of two people having a discussion over lunch.

B. controlling their physiological responses on a guilty knowledge test.

C. interpreting the polygraph test of a suspected criminal.

D. avoiding the facial feedback effect.

E. going through a cathartic experience.

Definition
A. detecting the emotions of two people having a discussion over lunch.
Term

Research on the accuracy of lie detector tests suggests that they

A. are more accurate for men than women

B. are accurate only 50 percent of the time, even when administered by experts.

C. are more likely to declare the innocent guilty that to declare the guilty innocent.

D. are more likely to declare the guilty innocent than to declare the innocent guilty.

E. are most accurate when used by researchers than by law enforcement officials.

Definition
C. are more likely to declare the innocent guilty that to declare the guilty innocent.
Term

Some researchers prefer the term settling point to set point because the typical body weight of an adult is influenced by

A. basal metabolic rate

B. several appetite hormones

C. the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus

D. environmental and biological factors

E. the brainstem and the cerebral cortex

Definition
D. environmental and biological factors
Term

One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO.  This gene nearly doubles the risk of

A. anorexia nervosa

B. a low set point

C. erotic plasticity

D. obesity

E. bulimia

Definition
D. obesity
Term

Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts.  Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative following episodes of binge eating.  Tawana most clearly suffers from

A. bulimia nervosa

B. anorexia nervosa

C. excess PYY

D. an abnormally high set point

E. hypermetabolism

Definition
A. bulimia nervosa
Term

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, body arousal is related to the subjective awareness of emotion in the same way as the ________ is related to the ________.

A. parasympathetic nervous system; thalamus

B. sympathetic nervous system; cortex

C. thalamus; hypothalamus

D. cerebellum; cortex

E. parasympathetic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system

Definition
B. sympathetic nervous system; cortex
Term

Which brain structure  has been found to be especially important in learning to fear specific objects?

A. hypothalamus

B. amygdala

C. corpus callosum

D. hippocampus

E. thalamus

Definition
B. amygdala
Term

Which of the following is clearly NOT an example of an incentive?

A. $1000

B. threat of punishment

C. electric shock

D. smell of popcorn

E. dehydration

Definition
E. dehydration
Term

The term homeostasis literally means

A. "common to all."

B. "unique to humans."

C. "staying the same."

D. "motivational dynamics."

E. "constant stimulation."

Definition
C. "staying the same."
Term

It is very difficult to get someone to change his or her unrealistically negative self-image.  This best illustrates the importance of

A. functional fixedness.

B. belief perseverance.

C. the framing effect.

D. the representativeness heuristics.

E. overconfidence.

Definition
B. belief perseverance.
Term

Many people overestimate how long they actually remain awake during restless nights because their moments of wakefulness are easier to recall than their moments of sleep.  This best illustrates the impact of

A. the representativeness heuristic.

B. confirmation bias.

C. the availability heuristic.

D. functional fixedness.

E. overconfidence

Definition
C. the availability heuristic.
Term

Bulimia nervosa is characterized by

A. losses of 25 percent or more of normal weight.

B. episodes of overeating followed by vomiting.

C. the loss of regular menstrual periods.

D. lifelong obesity.

E. periods of unhealthy eating habits followed by starvation.

Definition
B. episodes of overeating followed by vomiting.
Term

Semantics refers to the

A. logical and methodical procedures for solving problems.

B. orderly arrangement of words into grammatically correct sentences.

C. simple thinking strategies that facilitate quick decision making.

D. rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.

E. typical schemes we use to form concepts.

Definition
D. rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
Term

After receiving very bad news, people ________ the duration of their negative emotions.

A. overestimate

B. accurately estimate

C. slightly underestimate

D. radically underestimate

E. reduce

Definition
A. overestimate
Term

Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry....afraid because we tremble"?

A. Stanley Schachter

B. William James

C. Walter Cannon

D. Richard Lazarus

E. Charles Darwin

Definition
B. William James
Term

Which of the following is most clarly a form of ostracism?

A. drive reduction

B. self-transcendence

C. cluster migration

D. solitary confinement

E. homeostasis attainment

Definition
D. solitary confinement
Term

Campa Indians in Peru consider roasted ants a delicious delicacy, but this is not the case for most North Americans.  This best illustrates

A. the impact of unit bias on the foods we choose to eat.

B. the role our basal metabolic rate plays in food choices.

C. the influence of culture on food preferences.

D. the complex interaction of appetite hormones and brain activity.

E. our basic need to have our physiological needs met.

Definition
C. the influence of culture on food preferences.
Term

Which of the following is a common misconception about anorexia nervosa?

A. People with anorexia commonly drop 15 percent below normal body weight.

B. Anorexia is only a women's illness.

C. Those at risk for anorexia are not influenced by cultural factors.

D. People with anorexia are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight.

E. Families of people with anorexia tend to be overprotective.

Definition
B. Anorexia is only a women's illness.
Term

In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Rosenman found that Type A men are especially susceptible to

A. stomach ulcers.

B. cancer.

C. heart attacks.

D. lupus.

E. depression.

Definition
C. heart attacks.
Term

As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat.  These physiological reactions were activated by her _________ nervous system.

A. sympathetic

B. central

C. somatic

D. parasympathetic

E. endocrine

Definition
A. sympathetic
Term

In terms of the role of the family environment on eating disorders, research has discounted which of the following factors?

A. higher rates of childhood obesity

B. competitive, high-achieving families

C. childhood sexual abuse

D. mother's preoccupation with weight and appearance

E. higher-than-usual incidences of negative self-evaluation

Definition
C. childhood sexual abuse
Term

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce

A. homeostasis

B. a drive

C. an instinct

D. the set point

E. basal metabolic rate

Definition
B. a drive
Term

A drop in basal metabolic rate is most likely to result from

A. high testosterone levels

B. a semistarvation diet

C. erotic plasticity

D. excess leptin

E. decreased testosterone

Definition
B. a semistarvation diet
Term

Observers watching fearful faces show more brain activity in the ________ than do those watching angry faces.

A. cerebellum

B. thalamus

C. amygdala

D. hippocampus

E. medulla

Definition
C. amygdala
Term

The ecology of eating is best illustrated by

A. the set point

B. unit bias

C. homeostasis

D. refractory periods

E. basal metabolic rate

Definition
B. unit bias
Term

Research has demonstrated that in the presence of an authority figure, Japanese men are more likely than American men to mask negative expressions with a smile.  These differences in expressing emotion are best explained by

A. facial feedback

B. the spillover effect

C. display rules

D. the action of the amygdala

E. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon

Definition
C. display rules
Term

With the removal of the ovaries, a woman's natural _________ level drops.

A. testosterone

B. ghrelin

C. orexin

D. PYY

E. basal

Definition
A. testosterone
Term

Babies' first demonstration of productive language occurs

A. prior to the babbling stage

B. during the babbling stage

C. during the one-word stage

D. during the two-word stage

E. after the two-word stage

Definition
C. during the one-word stage
Term

Research on obesity and weight control indicates that

A. one pound is always lost for every 3500-calorie reduction in diet.

B. fat cells are lost when sustained dieting is combined with exercise.

C. once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our eight than we did to attain it.

D. it is easier for people to lose weight on the second or third attempt at dieting than on the first try.

E. obesity is related to learned patterns of behavior, not biological influences.

Definition
C. once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our eight than we did to attain it.
Term

Food deprivation is to _________ as hunger is to __________.

A. homeostasis; thirst

B. incentive; instinct

C. need; drive

D. motivation; emotion

E. anorexia; bulimia

Definition
C. need; drive
Term

During the last four decades, the buying power of Amerians has ________ and their self-reported personal happiness has ________.

A. remained almost unchanged; decreased

B. increased; remained almost unchanged

C. remained almost unchanged; increased

D. remained almost unchanged; remained almost unchanged

E. decreased; decreased

Definition
B. increased; remained almost unchanged
Term

Research on human fear indicates that

A. fear is more often a poisonous emotion than an adaptive one.

B. people but not animals may acquire fear through observational learning

C. people seem to be biologically predisposed to learn some fears more quickly than others

D. genetic factors are unimportant in understanding fearfulness

E. human fears are conditioned rather than predisposed

Definition
C. people seem to be biologically predisposed to learn some fears more quickly than others
Term

Brainstorming sessions that encourage people to spontaneously suggest new and unusual solutions to a problem are designed to avoid

A. heuristics

B. prototypes

C. semantics

D. fixations

E. framing

Definition
D. fixations
Term
In a psychiatrist's waiting room two patients are having a conversation. One says to the other, "Why are you here?"
The second answers, "I'm Napoleon, so the doctor told me to come here."
The first is curious and asks, "How do you know that you're Napoleon?"
The second responds, "God told me I was."
At this point, a patient on the other side of the room shouts, "NO I DIDN'T!"
Definition
Sometimes you just need a reason to smile :D
Term

Putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of crib death has been associated with a slight delay in children's

A. walking

B. crawling

C. bladder control

D. stranger anxiety

E. rooting

Definition
B. crawling
Term

Compared with when she was an adolescent, elderly Mrs. Packer is likely to experience a sad mood with

A. less intensity and for a longer period of time.

B. more intensity and increasing frequency.

C. less intensity and for a shorter period of time.

D. more intensity and for a longer period of time.

E. decreasing frequency and less intensity.

Definition
A. less intensity and for a longer period of time.
Term

Shortly before the democratic revolution in the former East Germany, researchers found differences in the body language of working-class men in East and West Berlin bars.  This best illustrated the impact of

A. the spotlight effect.

B. free association.

C. self-serving bias.

D. personal control.

E. reciprocal determinism.

Definition
D. personal control.
Term

Our motivation to achieve success and avoid failure is most directly influenced by our

A. Oedipus complex.

B. possible selves.

C. factor analysis.

D. free association.

E. self-serving bias.

Definition
E. self-serving bias.
Term

There is very little relationship between the age of an adult and his or her

A. fluid intelligence.

B. ability to recall meaningless information.

C. level of life satisfaction.

D. susceptibility to accidental physical injury.

E. susceptibility to colds and flu.

Definition
C. level of life satisfaction.
Term

In the long run, people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and time-managed programs experience an increase in

A. unconditional positive regard.

B. self-transcendence.

C. the spotlight effect.

D. self-control.

E. reaction formation.

Definition
D. self-control.
Term

One of the three major concerns of developmental psycology centers around the issue of

A. identity or intimacy.

B. continuity or stages.

C. imprinting or object permanence.

D. conservation or egocentrism.

E. longitudinal or cross-sectional.

Definition
B. continuity or stages.
Term

Identical twins with similar values and preferences are not very strongly attracted to one another's fiances.  This fact has been used to suggest that romantic attraction is influenced by

A. fluid intelligence.

B. the social clock.

C. secondary sex characteristics.

D. chance encounters.

E. basic trust.

Definition
E. basic trust.
Term

Byron is always looking to others for advice, approval, and affection.  According to the psychoanalytic perspective, Byron is most likely fixated at the __________ stage.

A. phallic

B. anal

C. latency

D. genital

E. oral

Definition
C. latency
Term

A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd.  The therapist is using a technique known as

A. fixation

B. free association

C. factor analysis

D. hypnosis

E. projection

Definition
B. free association
Term

Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issue of

A. continuity or stages.

B. behavior or mental processes.

C. stability or change.

D. fluid or crystallized intelligence.

E. nature or nurture.

Definition
C. stability or change.
Term

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator labels a person who is sympathetic, appreciative, and tactful as a(n) ____________ type.

A. thinking

B. judging

C. feeling

D. intuitive

E. projective

 

Definition
C. feeling
Term

When people with autism watch another person's hand movements, they display less _______________ than most others.

A. habituation

B. egocentrism

C. mirror neuron activity

D. stranger anxiety

E. imprinting

Definition
C. mirror neuron activity
Term

When 16-year-old Hafez received a large inheritance from his grandfather, he was tempted to purchase an expensive new car.  He decided, instead, to deposit all the money into a savings account for his college education.  Hafez shows signs of a

A. weak superego

B. weak id

C. strong collective unconscious

D. strong ego

E. weak collective unconscious

Definition
D. strong ego
Term

Dr. Birkin's major research interest is the development of motor skills in children.  It is most likely that Dr. Birkin is a ___________ psychologist.

A. cognitive

B. developmental

C. biological

D. psychodynamic

E. psychometric

Definition
B. developmental
Term

Freud suggested that a boy's identification with his father during the phallic stage illustrates the process of

A. unconditional positive regard.

B. self-transcendence.

C. free association.

D. conflict resolution.

E. collective unconscious.

Definition
D. conflict resolution.
Term

One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is

A. epinephrine

B. testosterone

C. serotonin

D. dopamine

E. alcohol

Definition
E. alcohol
Term

According to Piaget, assimilation involves

A. the absorption of nutrients into the body for growth and development.

B. training children to behave in a socially acceptable manner.

C. interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding.

D. altering existing schemas in order to incorporate new information

E. resolving social dilemmas in productive ways.

Definition
C. interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding.
Term

By professional training, Sigmund Freud was a

A. philosopher

B. sociologist

C. physician

D. literary scholar

E. counselor

Definition
C. physician
Term

The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's

A. current feelings of personal control.

B. specific political goals for the future.

C. general feelings of optimism about the future.

D. past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.

E. personality traits as revealed by the MMPI.

Definition
D. past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.
Term

People who break speed limits tend to think that many others do the same.  This best illustrates

A. the spotlight effect.

B.self-transcendence.

C. the false consensus effect.

D. undonditional positive regard.

E. external locus of control

Definition
C. the false consensus effect.
Term

People with high self-esteem are less likely than those with low self-esteem to

A. experience an internal locus of control.

B. overestimate the accuracy of their beliefs.

C. manifest self-serving bias.

D. succumb to conformity pressures.

E. have a strong ego.

Definition
D. succumb to conformity pressures.
Term

The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of __________ and ___________ on behavior.

A. self-concept; self-esteem

B. optimism; pessimism

C. environments; traits

D. the real self; the ideal self

E. the id; the superego

Definition
C. environments; traits
Term

Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic?

A. female ovaries

B. male facial hair

C. the male grip

D. female height

E. male testes

Definition
B. male facial hair
Term

The social-cognitive perspective has emphasized that depression is perpetuated by

A. motivational conflict.

B. self-blaming attributions.

C. egocentrism.

D. conscious role playing.

E. feelings of ambivalence.

Definition
B. self-blaming attributions.
Term

Matt is restless and often jumps out of his seat or interferes with ongoing class activities in response to the sound of outside traffic.  Matt most clearly exhibits symptoms of

A. generalized anxiety disorder.

B. antisocial personality disorder.

C. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

E. bipolar disorder.

Definition
C. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Term

Which of the following treatment approaches has received little or no scientific support?

A. ECT

B. exposure therapies

C. energy therapies

D. aversive conditioining

E. rTMS

Definition
C. energy therapies
Term

Dopamine overactivity appears to be most clearly related to

A. flat affect.

 B. agoraphobia.

C. hallucinations.

D. somatoform disorder.

E. an expressionless face.

Definition
C. hallucinations.
Term

To facilitate diagnostic reliability, the DSM-IV-TR typically bases diagnoses on

A. chemical analyses of blood and urine samples.

B. physiological measures of blood pressure, perspiration, and muscles tension.

C. observable patterns of behavior.

D. brain scans.

E. analysis of genetic predispositions.

Definition
C. observable patterns of behavior.
Term

As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog.  Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him.  Andre's false recollection best illustrates

A. the self-reference effect.

B. mood-congruent memory.

C. source amnesia.

D. implicit memory.

E. proactive interference.

Definition
C. source amnesia.
Term

A sense of being separated from your body and watching yourself with a sense of detachment is a symptom of

A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

B. dysthymic disorder.

C. generalized anxiety disorder.

D. agoraphobia.

E. dissociation.

Definition
E. dissociation.
Term

The study of the effect of drugs on mind and behavior is called:

A. psychosurgery.

B. psychobiology.

C. ECT.

D. psychopharmacology.

E. psychoanalysis.

Definition
D. psychopharmacology.
Term

The symptoms of _________ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of _________.

A. antisocial personality; schizophrenia

B. major depression; bipolar disorder

C. obsessive-compulsive disorder; phobias

D. schizophrenia; obsessive-compulsive disorder

E. major depression; alcohol abuse

Definition
A. antisocial personality; schizophrenia
Term

The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter

A. serotonin.

B. ACh.

C. GABA.

D. dopamine.

E. acetylcholine.

Definition
D. dopamine.
Term

Which of the following is most likely to contribute to inflated perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy?

A. meta-analysis

B. psychopharmacology

C. free association

D. regression toward the mean

E. the double-blind procedure

Definition
D. regression toward the mean
Term

Unusual ESP subjects who defy chance when first tested nearly always lose thier "psychic powers" when retested.  This decline effect is best explained in terms of

A. rTMS.

B. progression relaxation.

C. regression toward the mean.

D. the placebo effect.

E. ECT

Definition
C. regression toward the mean.
Term

Which of the following is most clearly a key contributor to the formation of the therapeutic alliance?

A. progressive relaxation

B. an eclectic approach

C. patient transference

D. an empathic therapist

E. free association

Definition
D. an empathic therapist
Term

The dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder during the past 40 or so years most strongly suggests that symptoms of this disorder involve

A. low self-esteem

B. illicit drug usage

C. promiscuous sexual behavior

D. internal attribution of blame.

E. role-playing

Definition
E. role-playing
Term

Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help patients

A. focus on their immeidate conscious feelings.

B. feel more trusting toward others.

C. become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.

D. develop greater self-esteem.

E. overcome negative conditioned behaviors.

Definition
C. become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.
Term

An eye-tracking device that measures an individual's ability to focus on and follow spots of light has been used for the assessmend ot

A. OCD.

B. PTSD.

C. DID.

D. ADHD.

E. DSM.

Definition
D. ADHD.
Term

People should avoid back-to-back study times for learning Spanish and French vocabulary in order to minimize

A. the self-reference effect.

 B. long-term potentiation.

C. mood-congruent memory.

D. interference.

E. echoic memory.

Definition
D. interference.
Term

According to the psychoanalytic perspective, depression results from

A. the internalization of anger.

B. learned helplessness.

C. self-defeating attributions.

D. anxiety disorders.

E. personality disorders.

Definition
A. the internalization of anger.
Term

After Charles Darwin began suffering from panic disorder, he lived in relative seclusion and traveled only in his wife's company.  His panic disorder was apparently accompanied by

A. catatonia

B. agoraphobia

C. delusions

D. mania

E. hallucinations

Definition
B. agoraphobia
Term

A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical caue is a

A. personality disorder.

B. somatoform disorder.

C. mood disorder.

D. dissociative disorder.

E. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Definition
B. somatoform disorder.
Term

The greatest sortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations

A. they were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia.

B. encouraged many to believe there was no such thing as insanity.

C. led to some harsh and ineffective remidial treatments.

D. absolved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior.

E. were applied only to mood disorders, not delusional disorders.

Definition
C. led to some harsh and ineffective remidial treatments.
Term

The belief that no person is an island is the fundamental assumption of

A. psychoanalysis.

B. family therapy.

C. client-centered therapy.

D. cognitive therapy.

E. systematic desensitization.

Definition
B. family therapy.
Term

Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that

A. there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.

B. almost anybody will develop schizophrenia if exposed to extensive environmental stress.

C. schizophrenia patients suffer from a deficiency of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

D. if adopted children's adoptive parents have schizophrenia, they will too.

E. a detached or permissive parenting style may increase chances of schizophrenia in children.

Definition
A. there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.
Term

An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed heartbeat as the _________ nervous system is to the _________ nervous system.

A. somatic; autonomic

B. autonomic; somatic

C. central; peripheral

D. sympathetic; parasympathetic

E. parasympathetic; sympathetic

Definition
D. sympathetic; parasympathetic
Term

The depolarization of anueral membrane can create a(n)

A. action potential.

B. myelin sheath.

C. lesion.

D. neural network.

E. interneuron.

Definition
A. action potential.
Term

Psychologists are LEAST likely to suggest that ___________ contribute(s) to the development of schizophrenia.

A. neglectful child-rearing practices

B. prenatal viral infections

C. dopamine overactivity

D. shrinkage of cerebral tissue

E. genetic predispositions

Definition
A. neglectful child-rearing practices
Term

In which disorder do peole alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?

A. conversion disorder

B. bipolar disorder

C. obsessive-compulsive disorder

D. schizophrenia

E. dissociative identity disorder

Definition
B. bipolar disorder
Term

The reduced self-control of murderers is most closely related to reduce brain activity in their ________ lobes.

A. frontal

B. temporal

C. occipital

D. parietal

E. sensorimotor

Definition
A. frontal
Term

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)

A. sympathetic nerve.

B. myelin sheath.

C. endocrine gland.

D. pituitary gland.

E. synaptic vesicle.

Definition
B. myelin sheath.
Term

The expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships is known as

A. transference.

B. resistance.

C. meta-analysis.

D. the therapeutic alliance.

E. fixation.

Definition
A. transference.
Term

Which of the following disorders was more common in Freud's day than it is today?

A. depression

B. anorexia nervosa

C. conversion disorder

D. dissociative identity disorder

E. anxiety disorder

Definition
C. conversion disorder
Term

After a car swerves in front of you on the highway, you notice that your heart is still racing, even though you know you are no longer in danger.  Why do the physical symptoms of fear linger even after we cognitively relize the danger has passed?

A. Dopamine controls fear, and this chemical takes a certain amount of time to break down in your system.

B. Endocrine messages tend to outlast the effects of neural messages.

C. Excitatory neurotransmitters travel faster than inhibitory neurotransmitters.

D. The parasympathetic nervous system is less effective than the sympathetic nervous system.

E. The adrenal glands tend to act more quickly than the rest of the endocrine system.

Definition
B. Endocrine messages tend to outlast the effects of neural messages.
Term

Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of

A. phobias.

B. dissociative disorders.

C. schizophrenia.

D. depression.

E. mania.

Definition
D. depression.
Term

The often unconscious activation of particular associations in memory is called

A. chunking.

B. automatic processing.

C. repression.

D. priming.

E. state-dependent memory.

 

Definition
D. priming.
Term

The anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region that monitors our actions, seems especially likely to be hyperactive in those with

A. generalized anxiety disorder.

B. a dissociative disorder.

C. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

D. antisocial personality disorder.

E. a mood disorder.

Definition
C. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Term

Proactive interference refers to the

A. blocking of painful memories from conscious awareness.

B. incorporation of misleading information into one's memory of an event.

C. disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned information.

D. disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

E. integration of current information into implicit memories.

Definition
D. disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
Term

To break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-cognitive perspective suggests that people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms taht are both

A. internal and stable.

B. external and global.

C. internal and global.

D. external and temporary.

E. external and stable.

Definition
D. external and temporary.
Term

The psychologist who questioned whether DID is a genuine disorder is

A. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema.

B. Kenneth Bianchi.

 C. William James.

D. Nicholas Spanos.

E. Martin Seligman.

Definition
D. Nicholas Spanos.
Term

Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety, has trouble sleeping, and has vivid flashbacks of her assault.  Brianna is most clearly showing signs of

A. panic disorder.

B. post-traumatic stress disorder.

C. generalized anxiety disorder.

D. social phobia.

E. bipolar disorder.

Definition
B. post-traumatic stress disorder.
Term

After learning that kicking would move a crib mobile, infants showed that they recalled this learning best if they were tested in the same crib.  This best illustrates the impact of ________ on recall.

A. the serial position effect

B. retrieval cues

C. state-dependent memory

D. the spacing effect

E. parallel processing

Definition
B. retrieval cues
Term

A major depressive disorder is most likely characterized by

A. delusions of persecution.

B. a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness.

C. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.

D. a persisten irrational fear of other people.

E. feelings of personal worthlessness.

 

Definition
E. feelings of personal worthlessness.
Term

What do psychologists call personal strenghts that help people cope with stress?

A. resilience

B. transference

C. insight

D. meta-analysis

E. resistance.

Definition
A. resilience
Term

A psychodynamic therapist is most likely to

A. associate patients' undesireable behaviors with unpleasant consequences.

B. help patients identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.

C. suggest interpretive insights regarding patients' difficulties.

D. recomment the use of antipsychotic drugs during the process of psychotherapy.

E. encourage depressed patients to take more responsibility for their failures.

Definition
C. suggest interpretive insights regarding patients' difficulties.
Term

Ron is a 22-year-old mechanic who suffers from claustrophobia.  The most effective way to reat Ron's problem would involve _________ therapy.

A. cognitive

B. electroconvulsive

C. psychoanalytic

D. client-centered

E. behavior

Definition
E. behavior
Term

Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the

A. amygdala.

B. thalamus.

C. hypothalamus.

D. anterior cingulate cortex.

E. brainstem.

Definition
A. amygdala.
Term

It is most helpful to use __________ for explaining why certain psychological disorders occur only in particular cultures.

A. the psychoanalytic perspective

B. the medical model

C. a biopsychosocial approach

D. DSM-IV-TR

E. linkage analysis

Definition
C. a biopsychosocial approach
Term

Which form of psychotherapy is LEAST likely to occur in therapist-led small groups?

A. client-centered therapy

B. psychoanalysis

C. systematic desensitization

D. cognitive therapy

E. token economy

Definition
B. psychoanalysis
Term

Cognitive therapists are most likely to encourage depressed clients to

A. sense and express their own real moment-to-moment feelings of depression.

B. carefully observe the negative consequences of their depression.

C. take more personal responsibility for their own negative feelings and actions.

D. stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.

E. identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.

Definition
D. stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.
Term

Of all the twins who share identical genes with a schizophrenia victim, about ___________ do not themselves develop schizophrenia.

A. one-fifth

B. one-fourth

C. one-half

D. two-thirds

E. three-quarters

Definition
C. one-half
Term

Natasha claimed that her failure to get A's in all her courses meant she was incompetent.  her therapist calmly challenged this assertion, commenting, "By your strange calculations, well over 90 percent of all students are incompetent!" The therapist's response was most typical of a(n) ___________ therapist.

A. cognitive

B. behavior

C. eclectic

D. client-centered

E. psychoanalytic

Definition
A. cognitive
Term

Accepting others' opinions about reality is to ________ as the desire to gain approval is to ________.

A. deindividuation; social facilitation

B. social facilitation; deindividuation

C. informational social influence; normative social influence

D. normative social influence; informational social influence

E. ingroup bias; outgroup bias

Definition
C. informational social influence; normative social influence
Term

Minimal levels of father care are associated with high levels of

A. conformity.

B. group polarization.

C. social facilitation.

D. aggression.

E. discrimination.

Definition
D. aggression.
Term

To a social psychologist, a perceived incompatibility of goals indicates

A. social loafing.

B. prejudice.

C. conflict.

D. group polarization.

E. the frustration-aggression principle.

Definition
C. conflict.
Term

Placing people into groups based on the arbitrary outcome of a coin toss leads people to show favoritism to their own group when dividing any rewards.  This best illustrates

A. the mere exposure effect.

B. the fundamental attribution error.

C. deindividuation.

D. ingroup bias.

E. reciprocity norm.

Definition
D. ingroup bias.
Term

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called

A. the reciprocity norm.

B. peripheral route persuasion.

C. social loafing.

D. conformity.

E. obedience.

 

Definition
D. conformity.
Term

Gallup surveys indicate that Americans who frequently attend religious servieces are more likely than those who do not attend religious services to

A. report that they are currently aiding the poor and infirm.

B. demonstrate the bystander effect.

C. violate the social-responsibility norm.

D. base their altruistic acts on the principle of reciprocity.

E. self-disclose to people they consider friends.

Definition
A. report that they are currently aiding the poor and infirm.
Term

The ingroup is the set of people with whom we share a common

A. social norm.

B. dispositional attribution.

C. identity.

D. situational attribution.

E. superordinate goal.

Definition
C. identity.
Term

In an experiment by Donald Dutton and Arthur Aron, one group of men were asked by an attractive woman to complete a short questionnaire immediately after they had crossed a swaying footbridge suspended 230 feet about the Capilano River.  This experiment was designed to study the factors that contribute to

A. the bystander effect.

B. social facilitation.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. passionate love.

E. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Definition
D. passionate love.
Term

Darley and Latane observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency.  The students' failure to help is best explained in terms of

A. the ingroup bias.

B. a failure to interpret the incident as an emergency.

C. indifference and apathy.

D. their feelings of limited responsibility.

E. emergency preparedness.

Definition
D. their feelings of limited responsibility.
Term

Attitudes are _________ that guide behavior.

A. norms and roles

B. superordinate goals

C. belief-based feelings

D. dispositional attributions

E. mirror-image perceptions

Definition
C. belief-based feelings
Term

An increased liking for an unfamiliar stimulus following repeated experience with it is known as
A. social facilitation.

B. companionate love.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

E. mirror-image perceptions.

Definition
C. the mere exposure effect.
Term

The tendency to categorize people on the basis of their gender is most likely to lead Jack to believe that

A. women all have pretty much the same attitudes about sex.

B. women seem to be unpredictable, because no two are alike.

C. most men tend to be logical and emotionally controlled.

D. in contrast to women, men have very similar tastes in dress and fashion.

E. women tend to act on ingroup bias, while men tend to act on outgroup bias.

Definition
A. women all have pretty much the same attitudes about sex.
Term

Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as

A. group polarization.

B. the chameleon effect.

C. social facilitation.

D. social loafing.

E. mirror-image perceptions.

Definition
B. the chameleon effect.
Term

Those who feel socially pressured sometimes assert their freedom by doing the opposite of what is socially expected.  This best illustrates

A. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

B. mirror-image perceptions.

C. the chameleon effect.

D. personal control.

E. cognitive dissonance theory.

Definition
D. personal control.
Term

After hearing respected medial authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly.  The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of

A. normative social influence.

B. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

C. social facilitation.

D. the mere exposure effect.

E. informational social influence.

Definition
E. informational social influence.
Term

Mr. Jones is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards at a local private school.  He persoanlly disagrees with the other committee members' proposed plan to begin accepting students with below-average grades.  Mr. Jones is most likely, however, to vote in favor of their plan if

A. the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion.

B. he stated his personal opinion early in the committee's discussion.

C. committee voting is done by private ballot.

D. he has a high level of self-esteem.

E. he personally dislikes the other committee members and wishes he were on a more prestigious college committee.

Definition
A. the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion.
Term

Compared with numerical majorities, numerical minorities, such as the Scots in Britain, are especially conscious of their

A. superordinate goals.

B. implicit attitudes.

C. reciprocity norms.

D. social identities.

E. personal space.

Definition
D. social identities.
Term

Ostracism has been observed to intensify

A. self-disclosure.

B. aggression.

C. hindsight bias.

D. deindividuation.

E. conformity.

Definition
B. aggression.
Term

One explanation for the fundamental attribution error involves observers'

A. diffusion of responsibility.

B. limited visual perspective.

C. social-responsibility norm.

D. mirror-image perceptions.

E. scapegoat theory.

Definition
B. limited visual perspective.
Term

Masked bandits might be more likely than unmasked bandits to physically injure their victims due to

A. deindividuation.

B. group polarization.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. social facilitation.

E. social loafing.

Definition
A. deindividuation.
Term

The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when

A. false stereotypes influence perceptions of others.

B. an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked.

 C. there are striking differences of opinion among group members.

D. self-awareness and self-restraint are reduced.

E. attitudes affect actions through normative social influences.

Definition
B. an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked.
Term

Class members are asked to work cooperatively in groups on major course papers.  Every member of a group is to receive exactly the same grade based on the quality of the group's paper. This simulation is most likely to lead to

A. social loafing.

B. social facilitation.

C. deindividuation.

D. the bystander effect.

E. the fundamental attribution error.

Definition
A. social loafing.
Term

A gradual escalation of intimacy is most positively related to a gradual escalation of

A. cognitive dissonance.

B. social facilitation.

C. groupthink.

D. self-disclosure.

E. normative social influence.

Definition
D. self-disclosure.
Term

Luella publicly agrees with her seventh-grade classmates that parents should allow 13-year-olds to date.  Later that day, she writes in her diary that she actally believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old.  Luella's public conformity to her classmates' opinion best illustrates the power of

A. deindividuation.

B. normative social influence.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. informational social influence.

E. social facilitation.

Definition
B. normative social influence.
Term

Alex thinks drinking sugar-laden sodas is bad for you but other players of his hockey team insist that it is not.  Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if

A. he has publicly voiced his opinion on this issue.

B. there is obvious disagreement among team players regarding the issue.

C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.

D. there are very few team members whom he currently wants to befriend.

E. the other players consider him to be one of the leaders of the team.

Definition
C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.
Term

Carol is restless during class because her teacher's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching.  The teacher, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn.  At this point, both student and teach should be informed of the dangers of

A. group polarization.

B. the mere exposure effect.

C. deindividuation.

D. the fundamental attribution error.

E. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Definition
D. the fundamental attribution error.
Term

In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were LEAST likely to deliver the highest levels of shock when

A. the experiment was conducted at a prestigious institution such as Yale University.

B. the experimenter became too pushy and told hesitant participants, "You have no choice, you must go on."

C. the "teachers" observed other participants refuse to obey the experimenter's orders.

D. the "learner" said he he had a heart condition.

E. the "learner" was placed in a different room from the "teacher."

Definition
C. the "teachers" observed other participants refuse to obey the experimenter's orders.
Term

A social trap is a situation in which

A. people lose self-awareness in group situations that foster anonymity.

B. there are insufficient resources to satisfy the needs of all group members.

C. a lack of critical thinking results from a strong desire for group harmony.

D. the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.

E. altruism violates a social-responsibility norm.

Definition
D. the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.
Term

A vivid example of a North Korean's behavior has an unusually strong influence on people's judgments of all North Koreans primarily because people

A. are motivated to confirm their current stereotypes of specific groups.

B. typically categorize other individuals on the basis of barely noticeable characteristics.

C. estimate the frequency of group characteristics in terms of the memorability of these characteristics.

D. strongly resent those who draw a lot of attention to themselves.

E. are prone to committing the fundamental attribution error.

Definition
C. estimate the frequency of group characteristics in terms of the memorability of these characteristics.
Term

When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help.  But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help.  His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in

A. the mere exposure effect.

B. the fundamental attribution error.

C. social loafing.

D. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

E. the bystander effect.

Definition
E. the bystander effect.
Term

A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage

A. altruism.

B. nonconformity.

C. ingroup bias.

D. groupthink.

E. supordinate goals.

Definition
B. nonconformity.
Term

Animals that have successfully fought to get food or mates become increasingly ferocious.  This best illustrates that aggression is influenced by

A. superordinate goals.

B. scapegoating.

C. frustration.

D. reinforcement.

E. group polarization.

Definition
D. reinforcement.
Term

Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans.  This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of

A. the mere exposure effect.

B. the just-world phenomenon.

C. the bystander effect.

D. scapegoat theory.

E. social facilitation.

Definition
D. scapegoat theory.
Term

In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves

A. acquiring social scripts.

B. role-playing aggression.

C. desensitization to violence.

D. priming aggressive thoughts.

E. models of aggression.

Definition
B. role-playing aggression.
Term

A dispositional attribution is to _________ as a situational attriution is to _________.

A. normative influence; informational influence

B. high ability; low motivation

C. personality traits; assigned roles

D. politically liberal; politically conservative

E. introversion; extraversion

Definition
C. personality traits; assigned roles
Term

Group polarization refers to

A. the lack of critical thinking that results from a strong desire for harmony within a group.

B. a split within a group produced by striking differences of opinion amoung group members.

C. the tendency of individuals to exert more effort when working as part of a group.

D. the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.

E. the failure to give aid in an emergency situation observed by many onlookers.

Definition
D. the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.
Term

University College London volunteers used a mechanical device to press on another volunteer's finger, after feeling pressure on their own finger.  They typically responded to the pressure on their finger with

A. less pressure than they had just experienced.

B. more pressure than they had just experienced.

C. the same amount of pressure they had just experienced.

D. Graduated and Reciprocated initiatives in Tension-Reduction.

E. hostility resulting from the frustration-aggression principle.

Definition
B. more pressure than they had just experienced.
Term

Attribution theory was designed to account for

A. the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others.

B. the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior.

C. social facilitation and social loafing.

D. the loss of self-awareness that occurs in group situations.

E. how people explain othrs' behavior.

Definition
E. how people explain othrs' behavior.
Term

Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by _______ and in terms of situational influences by _______.

A. the poor; the rich

B. attribution theory; social exchange theory

C. social psychologists; evolutionary psychologists

D. political conservatives; political liberals

E. men; women

Definition
D. political conservatives; political liberals
Term

If one student in a classroom begins to cough, others are likely to do the same.  This best illustrates

A. deindividuation.

B. ingroup bias.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. the bystander effect.

E. the chameleon effect.

Definition
E. the chameleon effect.
Term

Youths who are shunned and mocked by peers are especially likely to respond with aggression if they have earlier experienced

A. the mere exposure effect.

B. companionate love.

C. the chameleon effect.

D. social rejection.

E. ingroup bias.

Definition
D. social rejection.
Term

After Manny's father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires.  His action is best explained in terms of the

A. mere exposure effect.

B. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

C. fundamental attribution error.

D. bystander effect.

E. frustration-aggression principle.

Definition
E. frustration-aggression principle.
Term

The invention and transmission of dating and courtship customs best illustrate

A. personal space.

B. cultural influence.

C. the priming process.

D. the reciprocity norm.

E. self-disclosure.

Definition
B. cultural influence.
Term

Instead of providing arugments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images.  This strategy best illustrates

A. the social-responsibility norm.

B. deindividuation.

C. peripheral route persuasion.

D. informational social influence.

E. central route persuasion.

Definition
C. peripheral route persuasion.
Term

Deindividuation refers to

A. lack of critical thinking due to a strong desire for social harmony within a group.

B. the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another's behavior.

C. the failure to give aid in an emergency situation observed by many onlookers.

D. the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

E. the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitutes throught group discussion.

Definition
D. the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Term

The just-world phenomenon often leads people to

A. dislike and distrust those who are wealthy.

B. believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer.

C. express higher levels of prejudice after suffering frustration.

D. respond with kindness to those who mistreat them.

E. work to resolve and lessen social injustices.

Definition
B. believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer.
Term

The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to

A. experience any empathy for a stranger.

B. assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.

C. realize that the incident was really an emergency situation.

D. notice that the incident was taking place.

E. act on their empathetic feelings.

Definition
B. assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.
Term

After a year-long drought, the city of Pine Bluffs has banned all lawn sprinkling.  Many residents believe, however, that continued watering of their own lawn will have little effect on total water reserves.  Consequently, there is a disastrous drain on city water reserves caused by widespread illegal sprinkling.  This incident best illustrates the dynamics of

A. ingroup bias.

B. social traps.

C. the fundamental attribution error.

D. the bystander effect.

E. the just-world phenomenon.

Definition
B. social traps.
Term

The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the

A. "teachers" acutally seemed to enjoy shocking the "learners."

B. "learners" received painful electric shocks even if they had heart problems.

C. experiments were performed despite mass student protests against the research.

D. "teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.

E. participants were never debriefed about the true nature of the study.

Definition
D. "teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.
Term

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

A. neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.

B. perform simple tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

D. lose self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity.

E. experience an increasing attraction to novel stimuli as they become more familiar.

Definition
C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.