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AP GOV FRQ
FRQ Questions for Midterm
45
Social Studies
12/26/2011

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Term
* Litigation
(How do Interest Groups use this)
Definition
Interest groups take an issue to court to try to get it resolved.
Term
Campaign contributions
(How do Interest Groups use this)
Definition
giving $ to someone who is running for office ... makes people one agrees with more likely to get elected and allows one access to them if they are
Term
Grassroots
(How do Interest Groups use this)
Definition
group with large membership) lobbying / mass mobilization (expand impact, demonstrate to politicians that a lot of people - voters - care about the issue
Term
What technique does the AMA American Medical Association use.
Definition
not many doctors in relation to population, not dealing with constitutional issues, campaign contributions
Term
What technique does the Sierra Club interest group use?
Definition
Grassroots and lobbying
Term
What technique does theNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) use?
Definition
people represented not generally wealthy in relation to population, litigation, grassroots lobbying
Term
Describe the winner-take-all feature of the electoral college
Definition
as the District of Columbia. This is equal to the number of Senators and Representatives in each state (DC gets 3 votes). When a candidate gets a majority of votes in a state, then (with few exceptions) the candidate "wins" the state and all its electoral votes. The candidate with more electoral votes wins the election.
Term
Can a candidate only win the popular vote?
Definition
No. It is very possible for a candidate to get a majority of the popular vote, but still lose the election because of the electoral college system. This is partly because the smaller, less populous states have a disproportionately large "vote" in the electoral college. Also, the electoral college system does not take the margin of victory into account; whether the candidate wins a state by a large margin or a small margin, the candidate still gets the same number of electoral votes)
Term
How does the winner take all affect the political campaigns?
Definition
With the winner-take-all system in place, candidates focus more on states that are more densely populated so they get ‘more bang for their buck’. This way they may travel less, or shorter distances, and sway citizens opinions in a smaller area, but gain more electoral votes because the population is so dense. They may also spend less time in certain states due to the fact that the state is already so strongly behind the other candidate(s) and there is no chance that they would gain the most votes.
Term
How does the winner take all feature hinder third party candidates?
Definition
The winner take all feature of the electoral college hinders third-party candidates by not allowing them to be represented. It is very difficult for the minority party to win representation . Representation usually goes to the Majority party of that state (Republican or Democrat)
Term
1. Explain two reasons why the electoral college has not been abolished. Reason #1
Definition
If we relied just on the popular vote, there would have to be a runoff election among the two leading candidates if neither got a majority because third party candidates won a lot of votes. This would encourage the formation of third parties.
Term
2. Expalain two reasons why the electoral college has not been abolished. Reason #2
Definition
The other reason is the electoral college serves a larger purpose: it makes candidates worry about carrying states as well as popular votes, and so heightens the influence of states in national politics.)
Term
Explain how divided government has contributed to the decline in trust and confidence in government.
Definition
Divided Government - President belongs to one party, majority in at least one part of Congress is other party. Makes people feel like they can't accomplish anything - "political gridlock". Makes it seem ineffective - party affiliation over country. Executive controlled by one party, at least one part of Congress controlled by opposite party.)

Term
) Explain how the increased cost of election campaign has contributed to the decline in trust and confidence in government
Definition
looks like winner bought the election, corruption)

Term
Explain two specific consequences of the decline in trust and confidence in government for individual political behavior
Definition
not vote / participate, cynical, turn to a third part - not part of Republican vs Democratic parties, riot / protest / bomb - Oklahoma City 1995 - Angry Army Guy)
Term
Identify two factors that have contributed to the overall decline in turnout in federal elections and explain how each factor has contributed to the overall decline
Definition
increasing apathy, declining efficacy - belief that your vote / political voice matters)
Term
Identify and explain two reasons why voter turnout has been higher in presidential elections than in midterm elections
Definition
perceive that President is most important / powerful office so it is most important of all elections, presidential election is better publicized)

Term
Identify the fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process
Definition
influence public policy or public officials)
Term
Identify the fundamental goal of major political parties in the political process
Definition
get candidates elected to office)
Term
Describe two different ways by which interest groups support the fundamental goal of political parities in the political process
Definition
campaign contributions, grassroots mobilization
Term
explain two different ways in which that form of support helps interest groups to achieve their fundamental goal in the political process.
Definition
Cacandidates will listen to them if they give $)Campaign contribution. Grassroot - Mobilize large numbers of potential voters for candidate.
Term
Describe how age contributes to the likehood of voting?
Definition
older - more likely, younger - less likely
Term
Describe how income contributes to the likehood of voting?
Definition
higher - more likely, lower - less likely
Term
) Identify one current government electoral requirement that decreases voter turnout. Explain how it decreases voter turnout
Definition
(age 18 to vote) Young students are less likely to vote. Also you have to be registered to vote. Many people do not bother to register and they are not allowed to vote.
Term
Identify one linkage institution other than elections and explain two ways it connects citizens to government
Definition
media, polictical parties, interest groups. The media influences how people vote and feel about the government. Political parties also strongly influence voter behavior.
Term
Identify two formal methods for adding amendments to the Constitution
Definition
The Supreme Court can amend the Constitution if a case is brought to them that needs it. Congress can also amend the Constitution with a vote of two thirds in each house)
Term
Describe two informal methods that have been used to change the meaning of the Constitution
Definition
Elastic Clause – Allows them to stretch laws to fit their needs) (Changing Customs – women voters..when the constitution was first written women did not have the right to vote. Voting laws have changed a great deal since them. Now if you are over 18 you can vote.)
Term
Explain why informal methods are used more often than the formal amendment process
Definition
technicalities, time, getting everyone to agree - super majorities in Congress (both houses) and states, parties
Term
Describe two advantages the majority party in the United States House of Representatives has in lawmaking, above and beyond the numerical advantage that that majority party enjoys in floor voting
Definition
majority seats on every committee, majority chairperson of every committee, pick Speaker of the House)
Term
) Describe two differences between House and Senate rules that may make it likely that legislation may pass in one chamber but not in the other
Definition
Senate has unlimited debate - downside - can lead to filibuster, Rules Committee - limits time to speak about bill / # of amendments)
Term
) Explain how the differences identified in the houses can lead to the passage of a bill in one chamber but not in the other
Definition
The Senate has unlimited debate time. This can lead to a filibuster and less passage of bills.
Term
Identify two characteristics of a valid, scientific, public opinion poll
Definition
sample must be random, # large sample, must be representative of the population)
Term
Explain why each of the following enhances the influence of public opinion on the voting decisions of members of Congress. (Strong Public Opionion)
Definition
Strong opinions on certain subjects can influence how people vote for their politicians. Members of Congress need to be sensitive to these opinions and polling results if they want to remain in Congress)

Term
Explain why each of the following enhances the influence of public opinion on the voting decisions of members of Congress. (Competitive Relections)
Definition
when popular candidates run for the presidency their campaigns provide enough momentum to help elect some of their party’s congressional candidates who otherwise would not be elected. When elections are competive changing parties Congress members can vote the way the president would want them to vote if the President is popular. If the President is not popular than Congress members have to be very careful on how they vote.)
Term
Explain why each of the following limits the influence of public opinion on the voting decisions of members on Congress. (Legislators Voting Record)
Definition
Legislator’s voting records can be seen by voters. If a member of Congress votes a certain way most of the time the public opinion polls usually do not change the decisions that the Congress person is going to make) (Many times they vote according to Party Loyalty and do not pay attention to public polls
Term
Explain why each of the following limits the influence of public opinion on the voting decisions of members on Congress. (Party Leadership)
Definition
Members of Congress tend to vote according to their party leadership even at times when the polls show otherwise.
Term
For each of the presidential powers below, explain one way that congressional decision making is affected by that power. Executive Order.
Definition
Power to issue executive orders (Congress might not take action on certain issues - force President to act, avoid controversial decisions
Term
For each of the presidential powers below, explain one way that congressional decision making is affected by that power. (Veto Power)
Definition
The President has the power to veto Bills that are passed.
Term
For each of the presidential powers below, explain one way that congressional decision making is affected by that power. (Commander in Chief)
Definition
President has the power during war situations as Commander in Chief. If the need arises he can make decisions without Congress.
Term
Describe one key characteristic of the merit system
Definition
tests to show skills, knowledge, or expertise to get job)
Term
Explain how two factors work to keep the United States Supreme Court from deviating too far from public opinion
Definition
President picks people who will be in line with public opinion, Supreme Court depends on legitimacy - will not vote too far from public opinion in interest of their reputation)
Term
Identify three characteristics of Supreme Court nominees and discuss how each characteristic has been politically relevant during the appointment process
Definition
not elected - appointed, salaries cannot be reduced, life terms, have discretion over their jurisdiction
Term
Identify two methods that have been used by interest groups to influence the appointment process. Explain how each of these methods has been used to influence that process
Definition
Senate confirms - Senators subject to lobbying by IGs, support presidential candidates who will nominate judges)
Term
Using the data in the graph above and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks
Definition
the graph indicates the number of paid federal government civilian employment remains roughly the same at maybe 3 million from the year 1945 thru 2000 while the number of state and local government employees increases steadily from maybe 4 million to 16 million from 1945 thru 1995 then slightly decreases to the year 2000
Term
Explain how each of the following contributes to the difference between the federal and the state and local lines in the graph
Definition
* Block grants ($ N - S, states spend on ...)
* Federal mandates (N requires S to ... , had to have people to put mandate in action