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AP 2 Exam 2
Respritory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive (RRCC Final Exam)
356
Anatomy
04/29/2011

Additional Anatomy Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

The constancy of the chromosome number from one generation to the next is maintained through:

 

a. mitosis

b. DNA synthesis

c. cytokinesis

d. meiosis

Definition
d. meiosis
Term

In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be:

 

a. of different sexes

b. fraternal

c. identical

d. dizygotic

Definition
c. identical
Term

Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle:

 

a. during the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest

b. during the proliferation phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone

c. if fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo

d. the menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8

Definition
c. if fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo
Term

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ___:

 

a. they have the same number of chromosomes

b. they have the same degree of motility

c. about the same number of each is produced per month

d. they are about the same size

Definition
a. they have the same number of chromosomes
Term

Which of the following hormones is most important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid:

 

a. antidiuretic hormone 

b. aldosterone

c. erythropoietin

d. renin

Definition
b. aldosterone
Term

The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ___ buffering system:

 

a. hemoglobin

b. phosphate

c. protein

d. bicarbonate

Definition
d. bicarbonate
Term

The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called:

 

a. spermatogonia

b. spermatocytes

c. interstitial cells

d. sustentacular cells

Definition
c. interstitial cells
Term

Which of the following constitutes the female counterpart of the male scrotum:

 

a. the greater vestibular glands

b. the clitoris

c. the labia majora

d. the mons pubis

Definition
c. the labia majora
Term

Parathyroid hormone ___:

 

a. decreases renal calcium absorption while simultaneously increasing phosphate reabsorption

b. activates osteoblasts that deposit ionic calcium in bone

c. is the most important control of calium homeostasis

d. prevents excess calcium absorption by deactivating vitamin D in the small intestine

Definition
c. is the most important control of calium homeostasis
Term

Electrolyte balance ___:

 

a. may be disturbed due to higher loss of electrolytes on hot days

b. can be disrupted because water is not free to move between cells and capillaries

c. is usually difficult to maintain

d. refers to the phosphate balance in the body

Definition
a. may be disturbed due to higher loss of electrolytes on hot days
Term

Which of the following statements about sperm is not true:

 

a. the acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes

b. the sperm midpiece consists of Golgi bodies spiraled tightly around the contractile filament filaments of the tail

c. they contain very little cytoplasm or stored nutrients

d. they are sluggish in an acidic environment

Definition
b. the sperm midpiece consists of Golgi bodies spiraled tightly around the contractile filament filaments of the tail
Term

Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins.  This problem is often characterized by ___:

 

a. extreme weight gain

b. nerve damage

c. extreme weight loss

d. tissue edema

Definition
d. tissue edema
Term

Prostate cancer is ___:

 

a. most common in Asians

b. often the result of a distortion of the urethra

c. the number one cause of death in men

d. sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient

Definition
d. sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient
Term

A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates:

 

a. respiratory acidosis

b. metabolic alkalosis

c. respiratory alkalosis

d. metabolic acidosis

Definition
a. respiratory acidosis
Term

Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events:

 

a. the suppression of inhibin

b. secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth

c. that the female hormones are suppressed during pregnancy

d. that human chorionic gonadotropin be synthesized in the third week of the pregnancy

Definition
b. secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth
Term

Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ___:

 

a. low rate of insensible water loss

b. low daily rate of fluid exchange

c. inefficient kidneys

d. comparatively low metabolic rates

Definition
c. inefficient kidneys
Term

Edema may result from ___:

 

a. hyperproteinemia

b. decreased blood hydrostatic pressure

c. lymphatic blockage

d. hindering the flow of water out of the capillaries

Definition
c. lymphatic blockage
Term

Functions of testosterone include:

 

a. loss of facial hair

b. drying of the skin

c. facilitation of muscle and skeletal growth in mass

d. growth of the breasts

Definition
c. facilitation of muscle and skeletal growth in mass
Term

Select the correct statement about male sexual response:

 

a. expansion of the penile tissues results in dilation of the venous outflow

b. erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood

c. ejaculation is the result of parasympathetic stimulation

d. sympathetic impulses are responsible for causing penile arteriolar dilation, resulting in erection

Definition
b. erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood
Term

Water occupies two main fluid compartments within the body, the intercellular fluid compartment and the extracellular fluid compartment.  Which of the following statements is true concerning the volume of intracellular fluid?

 

a. the intracellular fluid compartment changes, so it is impossible to determine the amount of water at any given time

b. approximately two-thirds of the water is in the intracellular fluid compartment

c. approximately one-third of the water is in the intracellular fluid compartment

d. all of the water is in the intracellular fluid compartment

Definition
b. approximately two-thirds of the water is in the intracellular fluid compartment
Term

Select the correct statement about mammary glands:

 

a. they have functional, milk producing, simple alveolar glands

b. the breasts of most non-pregnant females are composed of fat and connective tissue

c. the pigmented area around the nipple is called perineum

d. mammary glands are modified sebaceous glands

Definition
b. the breasts of most non-pregnant females are composed of fat and connective tissue
Term

The movement of fluids between cellular compartments:

 

a. always involve filtration

b. requires ATP for the transport to take place

c. requires active transport

d. is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

Definition
d. is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
Term

Characteristics of the mature sperm includes:

 

a. the presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm

b. the absence of coiled mitochondria

c. the absence of an acrosome

d. the presence of two X chromosomes in approximately half the sperm

Definition
a. the presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
Term

The major reason older adults should monitor their intake of fluids is that:

 

a. most older people do not eat the proper foods

b. older people suffer decreased levels of antidiuretic hormone

c. total body water decreases with age, and restoration of homeostasis is slower

d. older people do not exercise, so fluids do not move from compartment to compartment easily

Definition
c. total body water decreases with age, and restoration of homeostasis is slower
Term

The corpus luteum is:

 

a. part of the uterine tube

b. the ruptured follicle following the ejection of an oocyte from the ovary

c. the mesovarium

d. the ovarian ligament the anchors the overy medially to the uterus

Definition
b. the ruptured follicle following the ejection of an oocyte from the ovary
Term

The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the:

 

a. sustentacular cells

b. spermatocytes

c. interstitial cells

d. spermatogonia

Definition
a. sustentacular cells
Term

All of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the:

 

a. development of body hair

b. lowering of the voice

c. development of testes as opposed to ovaries

d. increasing mass of the skeleton

Definition
c. development of testes as opposed to ovaries
Term

Which of the following hormones stimulates the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins:

 

a. GnRH

b. LH

c. FSH

d. testosterone

Definition
a. GnRH
Term

Fertilization generally occurs in the:

 

a. ovary

b. vagina

c. uterus

d. fallopian tubes

Definition
d. fallopian tubes
Term

Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart.  The influence of this hormone is:

 

a. to activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism

b. to enhance atrial contractions

c. to reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

d. to prevent pH changes caused by organic acids

Definition
c. to reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
Term

Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle:

 

a. development of endometrial cells

b. vesicular follicle growth

c. corpus luteum

d. late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline

Definition
c. corpus luteum
Term

Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids:

 

a. K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

b. little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids

c. equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids

d. Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids

Definition
a. K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
Term

Erection of the penis results from:

 

a. dilation of the veins in the penis

b. a parasympathetic reflex

c. a sympathetic reflex

d. parasympathetic activation of the bulbourethral glands

Definition
b. a parasympathetic reflex
Term

The term hypotonic hydration refers to:

 

a. a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

b. a condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartment

c. the feeling one might have after a long swim

d. the unpleasant feeling people have in the morning after drinking too many bullmeisters

Definition
a. a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water
Term

Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems:

 

a. the lungs and kidneys

b. the stomach and liver

c. the adrenal glands and testes

d. LH reaches its highest levels

Definition
a. the lungs and kidneys
Term

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle:

 

a. the Graafin follicle forms

b. progesterone levels are at their highest

c. estrogen reaches its highest levels

d. LH reaches its highest levels

Definition
b. progesterone levels are at their highest
Term

The primary function of the uterus is to:

 

a. regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles

b. protect the ovaries

c. receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

d. synthesize female hormones

Definition
c. receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
Term

The ability of sperm cells to move alond the ductus deferens is due to:

 

a. hormonal action

b. peristaltic contractions

c. enzymatic activity

d. gravity

Definition
b. peristaltic contractions
Term

The seminal vesicles:

 

a. produce a yellowish fluid rich in fructose

b. produce about 90% of the volume of semen

c. attach at the base of the penis

d. encircle the upper part of the urethra

Definition
a. produce a yellowish fluid rich in fructose
Term

Respiratory acidosis can occur when:

 

a. a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

b. the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions

c. a person consumes excessive amounts of antacids

d. a runner has completed a very long marathon

Definition
a. a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction
Term

Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes:

 

a. sperm will have no means of exit from the body

b. male sex hormone will not be circulated in the body

c. inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes

d. inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced

Definition
d. inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced
Term

The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system.  Which of the following is true about the role they play?

 

a. they contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens

b. they regulate the temperature of the testes

c. they contract to allow ejaculation

d. they are responsible for penile erection

Definition
b. they regulate the temperature of the testes
Term

Spermatogenesis:

 

a. uses mitosis to produce gamete cells

b. is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule

c. results in the formation of diploid cells

d. involves a special kind of cell division limited to the gametes

Definition
d. involves a special kind of cell division limited to the gametes
Term

Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance:

 

a. the kidneys are the most important mechanism for eliminating all bicarbonate ions

b. kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ions

c. all excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate

d. the kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid

Definition
b. kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ions
Term

Which of the following will occur shortly after ovulation:

 

a. the secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced

b. the endometrium enter its secretory phase

c. the corpus luteum secretes estrogen only

d. the corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans

Definition
b. the endometrium enter its secretory phase
Term

The total body water is divided into intracellular and extracellular fluids.  Plasma is considered:

 

a. lymph

b. extracellular

c. intracellular

d. interstitial

Definition
b. extracellular
Term

A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value.  What is the likely diagnosis:

 

a. metabolic alkalosis

b. respiratory alkalosis

c. metabolic acidosis

d. respiratory acidosis

Definition
a. metabolic alkalosis
Term

Which of these statements about sexually transmitted diseases is false:

 

a. genital herpes is caused by a virus that may cause intermittent lesions

b. gonorrhea is caused by a bacteria that can bring on painful discharges in males

c. chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can often be asymptomatic or bring on a wide variety of symptoms 

d. syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated

Definition
d. syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated
Term

Which of the following is not a disorder of water imbalance:

 

a. excess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma proteins

b. hypotonic hydration, in which sodium content is normal but water content is high

c. edema or tissue swelling, which is usually due to an increased capillary hydrostatic pressure

d. excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion

Definition
d. excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
Term

Normally menstruation occurs when:

 

a. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase

b. the corpus luteum secretes estrogen

c. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

d. blood levels of FSH fall off

Definition
c. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
Term

Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum.  One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but where did the other two arise:

 

a. what you really see are two polar bodies and the sperm that will fertilize the egg

b. the first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies

c. two are undeveloped primary oocytes taht failed to mature

d. there were originally four polar bodies and one disappeared

Definition
b. the first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies
Term

Select the correct statement about testosterone control:

 

a. FSH stimulates testicular production of testosterone

b. inhibin and testosterone exert prositive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary

c. the pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control

d. GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary

Definition
d. GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary
Term

Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females:

 

a. the only time hormones target breast tissue is during pregnancy and lactation

b. the mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system

c. all lumps identified in breast tissue are malignant

d. both sexes are equally prone to breast cancer

Definition
b. the mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system
Term

What mechanism divides the testes into lobules:

 

a. seminiferous tubules

b. interstitial spaces

c. the ductus deferens

d. septal extensions of the tunica albuginea

Definition
d. septal extensions of the tunica albuginea
Term

Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except:

 

a. lymph and interstitial fluid

b. cytoplasm

c. blood plasma

d. cerebrospinal fluid

Definition
b. cytoplasm
Term

The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that:

 

a. in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell

b. during spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced

c. the mature ovum is n, while the sperm is 2n

d. spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis, but oogenesis involves meiosis only

Definition
a. in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
Term

The brain-testicular axis:

 

a. is the tight relationship between the cortex and the control of testicular function

b. involves a positive feedlack loop control of spermatogenesis

c. involves posterior pituitary release of regulating hormones

d. involves FSH and LH release

Definition
d. involves FSH and LH release
Term

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly and deeply.  Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely:

 

a. metabolic acidosis

b. respiratory alkalosis

c. metabolic alkalosis

d. respiratory acidosis

Definition
a. metabolic acidosis
Term

Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle:

 

a. the follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation

b. rising levels of estrogen start follicle development

c. the LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte

d. high estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release

Definition
d. high estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release
Term

Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true:

 

a. rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin

b. fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube

c. the monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones

d. ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses

Definition
a. rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin
Term

A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal.  After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would:

 

a. have impaired function of interstitial cells

b. be sterile

c. not develop secondary sex characteristics

d. be impotent (unable to have an erection)

Definition
b. be sterile
Term

Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true:

 

a. the spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte

b. the secondary spermatocytes each form two spermatids

c. each spermatid forms two sperm

d. the primary spermatocyte forms two secondary spermatocytes

Definition
c. each spermatid forms two sperm
Term

The most important force causing new water flow out of capillaries is:

 

a. osmotic pressure of plasma proteins

b. intracellular hydrostatic pressure

c. hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

d. hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid

Definition
c. hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood
Term

Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese.  How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology:

 

a. it will increase the osmolality of the blood

b. she will experience hypotension

c. there will be a temporary increase in blood volume

d. there will be a shift in the pH of her body fluids to the higher side of the pH scale

Definition
c. there will be a temporary increase in blood volume
Term

A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause:

 

a. increased spermatogenesis

b. shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland

c. decreased testosterone secretion

d. excessive beard growth

Definition
c. decreased testosterone secretion
Term

Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes:

 

a. amount of body fat

b. membrane polarity

c. maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and ECF

d. neuromuscular excitability

Definition
a. amount of body fat
Term

The regulation of potassium balance:

 

a. is accomplished mainly by hepatic mechanisms

b. involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium

c. is not linked to sodium balance

d. includes renal secretion, but never absorption

Definition
b. involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium
Term

All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except:

 

a. FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium

b. a decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation

c. estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle

d. the corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation

Definition
a. FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
Term

True or False:

 

The hormone oxytocin combines with enzymes in semen to enhance sperm motility

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

The phosphate buffer system is relatively unimportant for buffering blood plasma

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

A human egg or sperm contains 23 chromosomes

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Most acidic substances (hydrogen ions) originate as by-products of cellular metabolism

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus

Definition
True
Term

 

True or False:

 

While the sodium content of the body may be altered, its concentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume

 

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The amount of testosterone and sperm produced by the testes is dependent on the influence of FSH alone

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Reproduction is not possible in males or females until one year after puberty has begun

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Severe damage to the respiratory system rarely will result in acid-base imbalances

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, feces, and urine

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

One of the most powerful and plentiful sources of buffers is the protein buffer system

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalamus

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The secretions of the bulbourethral glands neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The stage in meiosis where chromosomal exchange takes place is telophase

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Regulation of the acid-base system is accomplished mainly through respiratory control, and the kidneys also play a small role

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are low

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The zona pellucida is formed as the follicle becomes a secondary follicle

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The diamond shaped area between the coccyx, pubic arch, and ischial tuberosities in the female is the vulva

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Aldosterone is secreted in response to low extracellular potassium

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Addison's disease is a disorder resulting from viral infection

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin

Definition
False
Term

The extracellular fluid compartment is divided into the interstitial fluid and the:

 

a. blood plasma

b. plasma membrane

c. digestive juices

d. cytoplasma

e. transmission fluid

f. precious bodily fluids

Definition
a. blood plasma
Term

Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) ___ the loss of water:

 

a. has no effect on

b. increases

c. intracellular

d. extracellular

e. decreases

Definition
e. decreases
Term

High osmolality of the blood ___ the secretion of ADH:

 

 

a. has no effect on

b. increases

c. intracellular

d. extracellular

e. decreases

 

Definition
b. increases
Term

Aldosterone ___ the loss of potassium ions to urine:

 

 

a. has no effect on

b. increases

c. intracellular

d. extracellular

e. decreases

 

Definition
b. increases
Term

Sodium levels are highest in the ___ fluid compartment:

 

 

a. has no effect on

b. increases

c. intracellular

d. extracellular

e. decreases

 

Definition
d. extracellular
Term

K+ levels are highest in the ___ fluid compartment:

 

 

a. has no effect on

b. increases

c. intracellular

d. extracellular

e. decreases

 

Definition
c. intracellular
Term

When the testicles are too cold the ___ muscles in the spermatic cord contrast, drawing them closer to the warmth of the body:

 

a. detrusor

b. cremaster

c. testicular

d. dartos

e. inguinal

Definition
b. cremaster
Term

The muscle which pulls the scrotum tight around the testicles, causing it to look like a little 'brain' is the ___ muscle:

 

 

a. detrusor

b. cremaster

c. testicular

d. dartos

e. inguinal

 

Definition
d. dartos
Term

Tetrads of homologous chromosomes and crossing over both occur in ___ of meiosis:

 

a. prophase I

b. metaphase I

c. anaphase I

d. prophase II

e. metaphase II

Definition
a. prophase I
Term

Secrete about 60% of the volume of semen:

 

a. seminal vesicles

b. ejaculatory ducts

c. epididymae

d. bulbourethrals

e. prostate

Definition
a. seminal vesicles
Term

The ___ completely surround (s) the male urethra:

 

 

a. seminal vesicles

b. ejaculatory ducts

c. epididymae

d. bulbourethrals

e. prostate

 

Definition
e. prostate
Term

Pancreatic lipase breaks neutral fats down into:

 

a. fatty acids

b. glycerol

c. monoglycerides

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

Definition
d. all of the above
Term

True or False:

 

Fat soluble vitamins, such as A, D and E, are best absorbed when you take them with a fat-containing meal

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

If you obtain 5 of the 8 essential amino acids at breakfast, even if you ingest the remaining 3 essential amino acids hours later at lunch you won't be able to use any of them to make protein

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Nonessential amino acids are useless to the body

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

If a substance gains an electron, we say that it has been reduced

Definition
True
Term

Which is not a B vitamin which we saw caught in the act of being a coenzyme in the Krebs Cycle?

 

a. nicotinic acid (B3)

b. thiamine (B1)

c. pantothenic acid (B5)

d. riboflavin (B2)

e. all of the above form coenzymes in the Krebs Cycle 

Definition

b. thiamine (B1)

Term

Does not require the presence of oxygen:

 

a. the electron transport chain

b. glycolysis

c. the Krebs Cycle

Definition
b. glycolysis
Term

Most of the NADH is formed here:

 

a. the electron transport chain

b. glycolysis

c. the Krebs Cycle

Definition
c. the Krebs Cycle
Term

Oxidative phosphorylation of ATP occurs here:

 

a. the electron transport chain

b. glycolysis

c. the Krebs Cycle

Definition
a. the electron transport chain
Term

The final electron acceptor with the highest affinity for electrons which slurps up low-energy electrons from the end of the electron transport chain is:

 

a. acetyl CoA

b. lactic acid

c. NADH

d. pyruvic acid

e. oxygen

Definition
e. oxygen
Term

The Krebs Cycle produces ___ FADH2 per glucose, each of which can yield ___ ATPs if oxygen is present:

 

a. 2...2

b. 2...3

c. 4...2

d. 4...3

e. 4...4

Definition
a. 2...2
Term

True or False:

 

Breaking down fatty acids two carbons at a time so that they can be burned aerobically is called "beta oxidation"

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Building up glycogen from glucose is called "glycogenolysis"

Definition
False
Term

In transamination, the nitrogens removed from amino acids are incorporated into molecules of:

 

a. uric acid

b. amonia

c. urea

d. creatinine

e. all of the above

Definition
c. urea
Term

The major hormone of the absorptive state is:

 

a. cortisol

b. epinephrine

c. growth hormone

d. insulin

e. glucagon

Definition
d. insulin
Term

After filtration leaves the proximal convoluted tubule, it next flows into the:

 

a. distal convoluted tubule

b. glomerular capsule

c. ureter

d. loop of Henle

e. collecting duct

Definition
d. loop of Henle
Term

The descending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to:

 

a. NaCl

b. K+

c. glucose

d. water

e. none of the above

Definition
d. water
Term

In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, ___ is actively pumped out of the filtrate:

 

a. NaCl

b. K+

c. glucose

d. water

e. none of the above

Definition
Term

In response to systemic low blood pressure, the juxtaglomerular apparatus releases:

 

a. epinephrine

b. norepinephrine

c. antidiuretic hormone

d. angiotensinogen

e. renin

Definition
e. renin
Term

Which of the following would you not expect to find in normal urine:

 

a. NaCl

b. uric acid

c. hemoglobin

d. potassium

e. phosphates

Definition
c. hemoglobin
Term

True or False:

 

Glomerular filtration stops if the systemic blood pressure falls below -45 mmHg

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The esophagus is smooth muscle at the top third, mixed in the middle third, and skeletal muscle in the bottom third

Definition
False
Term

Which is not needed to produce high rates of HCl production from a parietal cell:

 

a. histamine

b. acetylcholine

c. gastrin

d. heparin

e. ALL of the above are needed

Definition
d. heparin
Term

Which of the following is not one of the three structures always found in the portal triad regions of the liver (i.e. each of the six corners of the hexagonal lobules):

 

a. branch of the bile duct

b. branch of the hepatic portal vein

c. branch of the hepatic vein

d. branch of the hepatic artery

Definition
c. branch of the hepatic vein
Term

Pancreatic ___ secrete digestive enzymes:

 

a. duct cells

b. islet cells

c. vascular cells

d. acinar cells

e. digest-o-rama cells

Definition
d. acinar cells
Term

...while pancreatic ___ secrete a bicarbonate-rich juice:

 

a. duct cells

b. islet cells

c. vascular cells

d. acinar cells

e. digest-o-rama cells

Definition
a. duct cells
Term

True or False:

 

Chief cells in the gastric glands secrete pepsin

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Cholecystokinin closes the hepatopancreatic sphincter (hint: what would you want cholecystokinin to do?)

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Gastrin closes the ileocecal valve. [Hint: think about what triggers the stomach mucosa to begin secreting gastrin, and what general, overall "message" gastrin sends to downstream GI tract organs as a result.  Then ask yourself, what would I want gastrin to tell my ileocecal valve to do?]

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Somatostatin stimulates the gallbladder to contract and the pancreas to secrete. [Hint: what is somatostatin trying to do?]

Definition
False
Term

Chemical digestion of ___ begins in the stomach:

 

a. protein

b. lipids

c. nucleic acids

d. starch

e. none of the above

Definition
a. protein
Term

In the carbonic acid-bicarbonate system, which of its molecular species resists a drop in pH? [Hint: if your stomach pH is too low, what do you do?]

 

a. CO2

b. H2CO3

c. H2O

d. HCO3-

Definition
d. HCO3-
Term

When strong emotions or pain alter the depth and rate of breathing, the higher brain center mediating these alterations is the:

 

a. hippocampus

b. basal ganglia

c. thalamus

d. pons

e. hypothalamus

Definition
e. hypothalamus
Term

True or False:

 

Physiologically, the most important stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is the low oxygen level of the blood

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

If the partial pressure of oxygen in an alveolus is unusually low, its pulmonary arterioles will vasodilate

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Surfactant in the alveoli is secreted by Type II Cells

Definition
True
Term

The total amount of air you can voluntarily move is called your:

 

a. residual volume

b. tidal volume

c. expiratory reserve volume

d. vital capacity

e. inspiratory reserve volume

Definition
d. vital capacity
Term

The patient drank cyanide laced koolaide because Rev. Jim Jones told him to:

 

a. anemic hypoxia

b. ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia

c. hypoxemic hypoxia

d. histotoxic hypoxia

Definition
d. histotoxic hypoxia
Term

The patient had carbon monoxide in her home so she called in sick at work and stayed in bed breathing more CO for days on end. [Hint: she also complained that her house had become haunted by ghosts]

 

a. anemic hypoxia

b. ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia

c. hypoxemic hypoxia

d. histotoxic hypoxia

Definition
c. hypoxemic hypoxia
Term

True or False:

 

The majority of carbon dioxide transported in the bloodstream is bound to hemoglobin

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Increased temperature results in increased oxygen unloading from hemoglobin. [i.e. decreases hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen making it more generous. Hint: what would you want your hemoglobin to do and what's what it does]

Definition
True
Term

In capillaries, bicarbonate ion crosses the RBC membrane.  But an electrostatic charge doesn't build up because ___ crosses in the opposite direction:

 

a. H+

b. Na+

c. Cl-

d. HCO3-

e. Br-

Definition
c. Cl-
Term

The oropharynx does not include ___:

 

a. pharyngeal tonsils

b. lingual tonsils

c. palatine tonsils

d. fauces

Definition
a. pharyngeal tonsils
Term

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II.  The function of type II is ___:

 

a. to replace mucus in the alveoli

b. to secrete surfactant

c. to protect the lungs from bacterial infection

d. to trap dust and other debris

Definition
b. to secrete surfactant
Term

Which of the following statements is incorrect:

 

a. during fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid

b. respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants

c. the chest wall becomes more rigid with age

d. descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing

Definition
b. respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants
Term

Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer:

 

a. adenocarcinoma

b. small cell carcinoma

c. Kaposi's sarcoma

d. squamous cell carcinoma

Definition
c. Kaposi's sarcoma
Term

Which of the following is not true of saliva:

 

a. moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus

b. dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted

c. contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

d. cleanses the mouth

Definition
c. contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
Term

Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport:

 

a. carbonic anhydrase is responsible for bonding CO2 to hemoglobin

b. the chloride shift mechanism enhances CO2 transport

c. 7-8% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin

d. 20% of CO2 is dissolved directly into the plasma

Definition
b. the chloride shift mechanism enhances CO2 transport
Term

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach:

 

a. chief cells

b. mucous neck cells

c. serous cells

d. parietal cells

Definition
d. parietal cells
Term

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules.  This series of reactions is called:

 

a. absorption

b. chemical digestion

c. mechanical digestion

d. secretion

Definition
b. chemical digestion
Term

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same hour basic layers.  Arrange them in order from the lumen:

 

a. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

b. muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa

c. serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa

d. submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa

Definition
a. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
Term

Air and food are routed into the proper channels by the:

 

a. trachea

b. larynx

c. pharynx

d. carina

Definition
b. larynx
Term

Important peritoneal folds do not include the:

 

a. peritoneum

b. omenta

c. mesentery

d. round ligament

Definition
d. round ligament
Term

The ___ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure:

 

a. spleen

b. liver

c. pancreas

d. stomach

Definition
b. liver
Term

Impairments of oxygen transport include:

 

a. carbon monoxide poisoning, a form of hypoxemic hypoxia

b. hypoxemic hypoxia, resulting from a decrease in levels of functional red blood cells

c. stagnant hypoxia, due to a functional problem with the lungs

d. anemic hypoxia, usually caused by congestive heart failure

Definition
a. carbon monoxide poisoning, a form of hypoxemic hypoxia
Term

The larynx contains:

 

a. lateral cartilage ridges called false vocal folds

b. a cricoid cartilage also called the Adam's apple

c. an upper pair of avasular mucosal folds called true vocal folds

d. the thyroid cartilage

Definition
d. the thyroid cartilage
Term

The ideal vital capacity of an adult male individual is around:

 

a. 4800 ml

b. 1200 ml

c. 3100 ml

d. 6600 ml

Definition
a. 4800 ml
Term

Intrapulmonary pressure is the:

 

a. pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

b. difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure

c. pressure within the pleural cavity

d. negative pressure in the intrapleural space

Definition
a. pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
Term

Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the alveoli:

 

a. cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchioles

b. lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the alveoli

c. proportionally, smooth muscle decreases uniformly

d. resistance to air flow increases at the level of medium sized bronchi

Definition
c. proportionally, smooth muscle decreases uniformly
Term

The structures that produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine are the:

 

a. microvilli

b. intestinal crypts

c. lacteals

d. cilium

Definition
b. intestinal crypts
Term

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by:

 

a. diffusion 

b. osmosis

c. active transport

d. filtration 

Definition
a. diffusion 
Term

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining.  Which of the following accomplish this task:

 

a. Brunner's glands

b. the vast array of digestive enzymes

c. the rugae

d. plicae circulares and intestinal villi

Definition
d. plicae circulares and intestinal villi
Term

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates.  Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal:

 

a. cholecystokinin

b. trypsin

c. gastrin

d. amylase

Definition
d. amylase
Term

There are three phases of gastric secretion.  The cephalic phase occurs:

 

a. at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time

b. when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required

c. before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight or thought

d. immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients 

Definition
c. before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight or thought
Term

Tidal volume is air:

 

a. remaining in the lungs after forced expiration

b. forcibly expelled after normal expiration

c. inhaled after normal inspiration

d. exchanged during normal breathing

Definition
d. exchanged during normal breathing
Term

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon:

 

a. external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax

b. diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax

c. diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax

d. internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

Definition
d. internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
Term

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases:

 

a. Henry's law

b. Charles' law

c. Boyle's law

d. Dalton's law

Definition
d. Dalton's law
Term

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption.  Which of the following enzymes is responsible:

 

a. lipase

b. rennin

c. pepsin

d. cholecystokinin

Definition
a. lipase
Term

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is:

 

a. greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin

b. only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form

c. not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules

d. about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin

Definition
b. only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
Term

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:

 

a. mesenteries

b. serosal lining

c. lamina propria

d. mucosal lining

Definition
a. mesenteries
Term

Chyme is created in the:

 

a. small intestine

b. mouth

c. stomach

d. esophagus

Definition
c. stomach
Term

Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the:

 

a. cystic duct

b. accessory pancreatic duct

c. main pancreatic duct

d. hepatopancreatic ampulla

Definition
a. cystic duct
Term

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located:

 

a. in the pons and medulla

b. only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accommodate food passage

c. in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen

d. in the walls of the tract organs

Definition
d. in the walls of the tract organs
Term

With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because:

 

a. a decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

b. an increase in pH (alkalosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

c. an increase in pH (alkalosis) weakens the hemoglobin-blood bond

d. a decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

Definition
a. a decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
Term

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be:

 

a. the thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange

b. between 5 and 6 micrometers thick

c. 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

d. at least 3 micrometers thick

Definition
c. 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
Term

Since the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange:

 

a. since the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exchange

b. respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus

c. respiratory exchanges are not necessary

d. respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta

Definition
d. respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta
Term

Another name for the inflation reflex is:

 

a. pulmonary irritant

b. Hering-Breuer

c. Haldane

d. Bohr

Definition
b. Hering-Breuer
Term

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the:

 

a. goblet cells of the small intestine

b. Brunner's glands

c. parietal cells of the duodenum 

d. chief cells of the stomach

Definition
d. chief cells of the stomach
Term

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by:

 

a. Boyle's law

b. Dalton's law

c. Charles' law

d. Henry's law

Definition
a. Boyle's law
Term

Respiratory control centers are located in the:

 

a. pons and midbrain

b. midbrain and medulla

c. upper spinal cord and medulla

d. medulla and pons

Definition
d. medulla and pons
Term

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged:

 

a. carbohydrates

b. proteins

c. starches

d. lipids

Definition
d. lipids
Term

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the:

 

a. tidal volume

b. vital capacity

c. expiratory reserve volume

d. insiratory capacity

Definition
b. vital capacity
Term

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called:

 

a. digestion

b. absorption

c. secretion

d. ingestion

Definition
a. digestion
Term

The loudness of a person's voice depends on:

 

a. the strength of intrinsic laryngeal muscles

b. the length of the vocal folds

c. the force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

d. the thickness of vestibular folds

Definition
c. the force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
Term

Which statement about CO2 is incorrect:

 

a. CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood

b. more CO2 dissolves directly into the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs

c. Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH

d. Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation 

Definition
b. more CO2 dissolves directly into the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs
Term

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called:

 

a. active transport

b. diffusion

c. denatured

d. hydroolysis

Definition
d. hydroolysis
Term

Possible causes of hypoxia include:

 

a. taking several rapid deep breaths

b. getting very cold

c. obstruction of the esophagus

d. too little oxygen in the atmosphere

Definition
d. too little oxygen in the atmosphere
Term

Select the correct statement about the pharynx:

 

a. the laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx

b. the palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx

c. the pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx

d. the auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx

Definition
d. the auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx
Term

___ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor:

 

a. sodium

b. phosphorus

c. calcium

d. iron

Definition
c. calcium
Term

Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung:

 

a. horizontal fissure

b. oblique fissure

c. cardiac notch

d. middle lobe

Definition
c. cardiac notch
Term

The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3.  What does the 1 stand for:

 

a. incisor tooth

b. molar tooth

c. canine tooth

d. premolar tooth

Definition
c. canine tooth
Term

The structure known as the fauces is the:

 

a. epiglottis

b. thyroid gland

c. submaxillary gland

d. passageway between the oral cavity and the pharynx

Definition
d. passageway between the oral cavity and the pharynx
Term

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach.  These secretions are stimulated by the presence of:

 

a. starches and complex carbohydrates

b. simple carbohydrates and alcohols

c. fatty acids

d. protein and peptide fragments 

Definition
d. protein and peptide fragments 
Term

The plicae circulares and intestinal villi are found in which of the four layers of the alimentary tube wall:

 

a. lamina propria

b. serosa

c. mucosa

d. adventitia

Definition
c. mucosa
Term

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria.  Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products:

 

a. mucous neck cells

b. parietal cells

c. zymogenic cells

d. enteroendocrine cells

Definition
d. enteroendocrine cells
Term

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing:

 

a. arterial Po2 below 60 mmHg

b. rising blood pressure

c. rising carbon dioxide levels

d. arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention

Definition
b. rising blood pressure
Term

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the:

 

a. bile canaliculus

b. pancreatic acini

c. portal vein

d. hepatopancreatic ampulla

Definition
d. hepatopancreatic ampulla
Term

The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because:

 

a. they produce a lubricating serous secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing

b. they contain cilia that protect the lungs

c. they control the volume of the lungs

d. they maintain the proper temperature for the lungs during sleep

Definition
a. they produce a lubricating serous secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing
Term

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by:

 

a. interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

b. warming the air before it enters

c. humidifying the air before it enters

d. protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations

Definition
a. interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Term

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells:

 

a. goblet cells and squamous epitheial cells

b. parietal cells and glial cells

c. cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells

d. serous cells and mucous cells

Definition
d. serous cells and mucous cells
Term

Hepatocytes do not:

 

a. process nutrients

b. store fat-soluble vitamins

c. produce digestive enzymes

d. detoxify

Definition
c. produce digestive enzymes
Term

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the:

 

a. abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa

b. action of the epiglottis

c. ciliated mucous lining in the nose

d. porous structure of the turbinate bones

Definition
c. ciliated mucous lining in the nose
Term

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It:

 

a. has haustra

b. does not contain villi

c. exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli

d. is longer than the small intestine

Definition
d. is longer than the small intestine
Term

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor:

 

a. parietal cells

b. mucous neck cells

c. enteroendocrine cells

d. zygmogenic cells

Definition
a. parietal cells
Term

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by:

 

a. the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts

b. somatic neurons in the spinal cord

c. the rubrospinal tracts

d. the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

Definition
d. the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
Term

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed:

 

a. B12

b. A

c. C

d. K

Definition
a. B12
Term

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because:

 

a. the basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes

b. the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

c. the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at high altitudes

d. the temperature is lower at higher altitudes

Definition
b. the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
Term

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins:

 

a. trypsin

b. lipase

c. amylase

d. dextrinase

Definition
a. trypsin
Term

The fluid secreted by the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is:

 

a. gastric juice

b. bile

c. pancreatic juice

d. intestinal juice

Definition
b. bile
Term

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds:

 

a. fungiform, circumvallate, and filiform

b. palatine and circumvallate

c. fungiform and circumvallate

d. circumvallate and filiform

Definition
c. fungiform and circumvallate
Term

The respiratory membrane is a combination of:

 

a. alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

b. atria and alveolar sacs

c. respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts

d. respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs

Definition
a. alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Term

The nose serves all of the following functions except:

 

a. warming and humidifying the air

b. as the initiator of the cough reflex

c. as a passageway for air movement

d. cleansing the air

Definition
b. as the initiator of the cough reflex
Term

Which of the following statements is correct:

 

a. H+ has little effect on the blood pH

b. H+ acts directly on central chemoreceptors to decrease the rate and depth of breathing

c. arterial pH does not affect central chemoreceptors directly

d. low arterial pH is the most powerful stimulator of respiration

Definition
c. arterial pH does not affect central chemoreceptors directly
Term

Tooth structure includes:

 

a. the dentin, which is the hardest substance in the body

b. a root covered with enamel

c. a thin periodontal ligament that holds the tooth in place

d. pulp, an avascular connective tissue filling the hollow cavity of the tooth

Definition
c. a thin periodontal ligament that holds the tooth in place
Term

A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing.  However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by:

 

a. 28 weeks

b. 17 weeks

c. 24 weeks

d. 36 weeks

Definition
a. 28 weeks
Term

Gas emboli may occur because:

 

a. a pilot holds her breath upon descent

b. a person holds his breath too long

c. a diver holds his breath upon ascent

d. a person breathes pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber

Definition
c. a diver holds his breath upon ascent
Term

The function of the goblet cells is to:

 

a. provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food

b. produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

c. secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral

d. absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use

Definition
b. produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
Term

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include:

 

a. ACh

b. gastrin

c. secretin

d. histamine

Definition
c. secretin
Term

Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation:

 

a. a decrease in compliance causes an increase in ventilation

b. as alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required

c. surfactant helps increase alveolar surface tension

d. a lung that is less elastic will require less muscle action to perform adequate ventilation

Definition
b. as alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required
Term

The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from:

 

a. endoderm

b. pachyderm

c. ectoderm

d. mesoderm

Definition
a. endoderm
Term

Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:

 

a. increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity

b. a 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal

c. during normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returing to the lungs carries one molecule of O2

d. during conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently

Definition
b. a 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal
Term

You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk.  Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food:

 

a. the thyroid gland

b. the parotid glands

c. the buccal glands

d. the pancreas

Definition
d. the pancreas
Term

Which of the following is not possible:

 

a. gas flow equals pressure gradient over resistance

b. resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow

c. pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance

d. the amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the alveoli

Definition
c. pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance
Term

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily.  Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates:

 

a. dysphagia

b. ketosis

c. acidosis

d. alkalosis

Definition
d. alkalosis
Term

True or False:

 

Labored breathing is termed dyspnea

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The roof of the nasal cavity is formed by parts of the frontal bone

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

The pancreas has both an endocrine and exocrine function

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Mumps is an inflammation of the parotid glands caused by myxovirus

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Kupffer cells are found in the liver and are responsible for removing bacteria and worn-out cells

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Another term for swallowing is deglutition

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

The functions of the nasal chochae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air

Definition
True
Term

 

True or False:

 

The stomach's contractile rhythm is set by pacemaker cells found in the spinal cord

 

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Strong emotions and pain acting through the limbic system activate sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus, thus modulating respiratory rate and depth by sending signals to the respiratory centers

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Atelectasis (lung collapse) renders the lung useless for ventilation

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Oxytocin promotes milk synthesis while prolactin promotes milk letdown

Definition
False
Term

 

True or False:

 

Prolactin promotes milk synthesis while oxytocin promotes milk letdown

 

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Progesterone stimulates immature follicles to develop

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

FSH stimulates immature follicles to develop

Definition
True
Term

Gametes have the ___ chromosome number, while a zygote  has the ___ chromosome number:

 

a. 2N...2N

b. 2N...N

c. N...N

d. N...2N

Definition
d. N...2N
Term

True or False:

 

Thecal cells surrounding a growing follicle are stimulated by LH to directly release androgens

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The female strategy is to make relatively fewer gametes which are loaded with organelles and nutrients and are non-motile

Definition
True
Term

The clitoral hood (prepuce) in the female is anatomically equivalent to the ___ in the male:

 

a. foreskin

b. glans

c. tunica albuginea

d. mons pubis

e. skin around the penile shaft

Definition
a. foreskin
Term

True or False:

 

Most commonly, fertilization by a sperm cell of an egg cell occurs in the uterus rather than the fallopian tube

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

2-3 polar bodies result from spermatogenesis

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

2-3 polar bodies result from oogogenesis

Definition
True
Term

If implantation of a fertilized egg occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by ___ from the embryo:

 

a. estrogen

b. FSH

c. human chorionic gonadotropin

d. progesterone

e. LH

Definition
c. human chorionic gonadotropin
Term

True or False:

 

The early embryo has structures corresponding to a penis and a clitoris.  In the course of development, one of them grows while the other vestigiates

Definition
False
Term

Which of the following syndromes may not be discovered until a girl reaches puberty and fails to menstruate:

 

a. androgen insensitivity syndrome with testicular feminization

b. congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia (CVAH)

Definition
a. androgen insensitivity syndrome with testicular feminization
Term

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the:

 

a. distal convoluted tubule

b. loop of Henle

c. glomerular filtration membrane

d. collecting duct

Definition
b. loop of Henle
Term

Select the correct statement about the ureters:

 

a. the ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve endings only

b. ureters contain sphincters at the entrance to the bladder to prevent the backflow of urine

c. the epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allow a great deal of stretch

d. the ureters are capable of peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract

Definition
d. the ureters are capable of peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract
Term

The process of breaking tryglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as:

 

a. gluconeogenesis

b. lypogenesis

c. fat utilization 

d. lipolysis

Definition
d. lipolysis
Term

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration:

 

a. oxidative reactions

b. substrate level phosphorylation

c. oxidation reduction reactions

d. oxidative phosphorylation

Definition
d. oxidative phosphorylation
Term

Anabolism includes reactions in which:

 

a. carbohydrate utilization increases

b. larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

c. structural proteins are used as a potential energy source

d. ketone bodies are formed

Definition
b. larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
Term

Glycogen is formed in the liver during:

 

a. postabsorptive state

b. starvation period

c. absorptive state

d. period when the metabolic rate is lowest

Definition
c. absorptive state
Term

In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ___ are converted to glucose:

 

a. cholesterol

b. glycogen

c. glycerol

d. glucagon

Definition
c. glycerol
Term

The primary function of carbohydrates is:

 

a. energy production within cells

b. to form functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes

c. to maintain a large storehouse of glycogen

d. to contribute to cell structure

Definition
a. energy production within cells
Term

The renal corpuscle is made up of:

 

a. the renal papilla

b. the descending loop of Henle

c. Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

d. the renal pyramid

Definition
c. Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
Term

When proteins under deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly:

 

a. ammonia

b. urea

c. acteyl CoA

d. ketone bodies

Definition
b. urea
Term

Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the:

 

a. conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water

b. formation of sugar

c. conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water

d. the conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

Definition
d. the conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Term

The ___ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney:

 

a. cortical radiate

b. interlobular

c. lobar

d. arcuate

Definition
d. arcuate
Term

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except:

 

a. production of some hormones

b. formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes

c. production of enzymes, clotting factor, and antibodies

d. production of energy

Definition
d. production of energy
Term

Catabolism would be best described as a processes that:

 

a. builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state

b. causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies

c. elevates glucagon levels

d. breaks down complex structures to simpler ones

Definition
d. breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
Term

The functional and structural unit of the kidney is:

 

a. the nephron

b. Bowman's capsule

c. the loop of Henle

d. the basement membrane of the capillaries

Definition
a. the nephron
Term

Which gland sits atop each kidney:

 

a. pituitary

b. thymus

c. adrenal

d. pancreas

Definition
c. adrenal
Term

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to:

 

a. a decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma

b. a decrease in the production of ADH

c. an increase in the production of aldosterone

d. an increase in the production of ADH

Definition
d. an increase in the production of ADH
Term

Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is:

 

a. converted to urea

b. transferred to a keto acid

c. transferred to acetyl CoA

d. converted to ammonia

Definition
b. transferred to a keto acid
Term

Heat loss mechanisms do no include:

 

a. reducing activity

b. behavior measures such as wearing light, loose clothing

c. vacoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels

d. the evaporation of sweat

Definition
c. vacoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels
Term

Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters:

 

a. they are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia)

b. they are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum

c. they are made up of several layers of endothelium

d. they are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to contract in order to transport urine efficiently

Definition
a. they are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia)
Term

Which of the following statements best describes complete protein:

 

a. must meet all of the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

b. derived from meat and fish only

c. meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet

d. derived only from legumes and other plant material

Definition
a. must meet all of the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth
Term

Cholesterol, while it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because:

 

a. it helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation

b. it enters the glycolytic pathway would being altered

c. it helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs

d. it is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones

Definition
d. it is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
Term

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which:

 

a. glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

b. glycogen is broken down to release glucose

c. glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water

d. glycogen is formed

Definition
a. glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
Term

The most abundant dietary lipids are:

 

a. fatty acids

b. cholesterol

c. phospholipids

d. triglycerides

Definition
d. triglycerides
Term

Which of the following is most correct:

 

a. saturated fats stimulate the liver to synthesize cholesterol

b. unsaturated fats are easily oxidized but decrease cholesterol excretion

c. excess intracellular cholesterol stimulates cellular production of LDL receptors

d. smoking has been implicated in enhancing HDL synthesis

Definition
a. saturated fats stimulate the liver to synthesize cholesterol
Term

The primary function of cellular respiration is to:

 

a. provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals

b. efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body

c. break down food molecules and generate ATP

d. determine the amount of heat headed by the human body

Definition
c. break down food molecules and generate ATP
Term

The amount of ___ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR:

 

a. norepinephrine

b. ADH

c. prolactin

d. thyroxine

Definition
d. thyroxine
Term

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it:

 

a. is impermeable to most substances

b. has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems

c. is drained by an efferent arteriole

d. has a basement membrane

Definition
c. is drained by an efferent arteriole
Term

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for:

 

a. regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

b. reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins and water

c. the secretion of acids and ammonia 

d. the secretion of drugs

Definition
a. regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
Term

Vitamins are organic compounds.  They:

 

a. are all water soluble and absorbed with water from the digestive tract

b. are classified as water soluble or protein soluble classes

c. often function as coenzymes to assist in catalysis

d. may serve as building blocks

Definition
c. often function as coenzymes to assist in catalysis
Term

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ___ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids:

 

a. liver

b. spleen

c. pancrease

d. brain

Definition
d. brain
Term

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because:

 

a. it stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

b. it produces vitamin D

c. it ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently

d. it is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys

Definition
a. it stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
Term

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is:

 

a. cellulose

b. acetyl CoA

c. fat

d. glucose

Definition
d. glucose
Term

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because:

 

a. all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization

b. very few foods contain vitamins

c. most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

d. all vitamins provide protection against the common cold

Definition
c. most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
Term

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle:

 

a. a vasa recta

b. a fenestrated capillary

c. a podocyte

d. an efferent arteriole

Definition
a. a vasa recta
Term

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin:

 

a. by a decrease in the blood pressure

b. when the peritubular capillaries are dialated

c. when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10

d. when the pH of the urine decreases

Definition
a. by a decrease in the blood pressure
Term

Urine passes through the:

 

a. hilum to urethra to bladder

b. glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule

c. pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

d. renal hilum to the bladder to the ureter

Definition
c. pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
Term

Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves is termed:

 

a. radiation

b. conduction

c. evaporation

d. convection

Definition
a. radiation
Term

Oxidative deamination takes place in the:

 

a. muscles

b. kidneys

c. blood

d. liver

Definition
d. liver
Term

The first major branch of the renal artery is:

 

a. arcuate

b. cortical radiate

c. segmental

d. interlobular

Definition
c. segmental
Term

Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because:

 

a. there are no functional nephrons until after birth

b. there is no way a fetus could excrete urine until the seventh month of development

c. fetuses do not have waste to excrete

d. the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear waste from the fetal blood

Definition
d. the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear waste from the fetal blood
Term

Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance:

 

a. a negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis

b. it occurs whenever amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried into the bloodstream

d. protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis

Definition
d. protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis
Term

Vitamin ___ is present in the body as a coenzyme FAD and FMN and is a component of amino acid oxidase:

 

a. D

b. B1

c. B2

d. A

Definition
c. B2
Term

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is:

 

a. osmosis

b. cotransport with sodium ions

c. solvent drag

d. active transport

Definition
a. osmosis
Term

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of ADH by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is:

 

a. diabetes mellitus

b. diabetic acidosis

c. diabetes insipidus

d. coma

Definition
c. diabetes insipidus
Term

Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria:

 

a. electron transport chain

b. Krebs cycle

c. glycoloysis

d. formation of malic acid from fumaric acid

Definition
c. glycoloysis
Term

Tubular resorption:

 

a. is a way for the body to get rid of unwanted waste

b. includes substances such as creatinine

c. by passive processes requires ATP to move solutes from the interior of the tubule to the blood

d. by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient

Definition
d. by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient
Term

The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that:

 

a. they spend most of the day at rest, and their food will quickly turn to fat

b. they have a higher metabolic rate and do not need large amounts of food

c. muscle mass and metabolism decline with age

d. their appetite begins to diminish

Definition
c. muscle mass and metabolism decline with age
Term

When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may:

 

a. pant

b. exhibit vasodilation of skin vessels

c. perspire heavily

d. shiver

Definition
d. shiver
Term

While the kidneys process about 180 L of blood derived fluids daily, the amount that actually leaves the body is:

 

a. 1%, or 1.8 L

b. 10%, or 18 L

c. all of the 180 L

d. 50%, or 90 L

Definition
a. 1%, or 1.8 L
Term

Which of the following is correct:

 

a. lipolysis results in the formation of triglycerides

b. beta oxidation of a 10 carbon fatty acid would produce 2 acetyl CoA molecules

c. a 24 carbon fatty acid yields 6 acetyl CoA molecules

d. lipogenesis is triglyceride synthesis

Definition
d. lipogenesis is triglyceride synthesis
Term

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal:

 

a. filtration would increase in proportion to the increase in capsular pressure

b. net filtration would increase above normal

c. capsular osmotic pressure would compensate so that their filtration would not change

d. net filtration would decrease

Definition
d. net filtration would decrease
Term

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body:

 

1. major calyx

2. minor calyx

3. nephron

4. urethra

5. ureter

6. collecting duct

 

a. 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

b. 3, 1, 2, 6, 5 ,4 

c. 2, 1, 3, 6, 5, 4

d. 6, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4

Definition
a. 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
Term

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized:

 

a. proteins

b. foods and beverages high in caffeine

c. fats

d. vitamins and minerals

Definition
c. fats
Term

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule:

 

a. Na+

b. K+

c. creatinine

d. glucose

Definition
c. creatinine
Term

The macula densa cells respond to:

 

a. changes in pressure in the tubule

b. changes in solute content of the filtrate

c. aldosterone

d. antidiuretic hormone

Definition
b. changes in solute content of the filtrate
Term

Which statement is true about urine:

 

a. urine has an ammonialike odor when fresh

b. urine has nitrogenous waste such as urea and uric acid

c. urine has a yellow color due to the presence of hemoglobin

d. urine is usually slightly alkaline

Definition
b. urine has nitrogenous waste such as urea and uric acid
Term

Which of the following statements is true regarding the use of mineral oil as a laxative:

 

a. mineral oil is often contaminated an could cause severe illness in the elderly

b. it interferes with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins

c. mineral oil is an old-fashioned laxative and should not be used by any segment of society

d. it is a strong catharic and may cause dehydration

Definition
b. it interferes with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
Term

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it:

 

a. increases secretion of ADH

b. is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells

c. inhibits the release of ADH

d. increases the rate of glomerular filtration

Definition
c. inhibits the release of ADH
Term

Glucose can be obtained by:

 

a. glycogenolysis

b. trygliceride anabolism

c. protein anabolism

d. cholesterol catabolism

Definition
a. glycogenolysis
Term

The function of angiotensin II is to:

 

a. decrease arterial blood pressure

b. decrease the production of aldosterone

c. decrease water absorption

d. constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

Definition
d. constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
Term

The urinary bladder is composed of ___ epithelium:

 

a. transitional

b. pseudostratified columnar

c. simple squamous

d. stratified squamous

Definition
a. transitional
Term

Select the correct statement about proteins:

 

a. proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the 8 essential amino acids are present

b. strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids

c. proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbs are ingested

d. catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis

Definition
c. proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbs are ingested
Term

The pickup molecule for the Krebs cycle is ___ acid:

 

a. malic

b. isocitric 

c. fumaric

d. oxaloacetic

Definition
d. oxaloacetic
Term

Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation:

 

a. fatty acids are broken into acetic acid fragements

b. every second carbon is reduced

c. it occurs in the mitochondrion

d. it involves catabolism of fatty acids

Definition
b. every second carbon is reduced
Term

The filtration membrane includes all except:

 

a. basement membrane

b. renal fascia

c. glomerular endothelium

d. podocytes

Definition
b. renal fascia
Term

Which statement is correct:

 

a. most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine

b. the excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood

c. reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled

d. normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein

Definition
c. reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled
Term

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does that mean:

 

a. the glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood

b. the clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult

c. normally all the glucose is reabsorbed

d. most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules

Definition
c. normally all the glucose is reabsorbed
Term

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is:

 

a. the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood

b. the capsular hydrostatic pressure

c. the myogenic mechanism

d. the glomerular hydrostatic pressure

Definition
d. the glomerular hydrostatic pressure
Term

Excretion of dilute urine requires:

 

a. the presence of ADH

b. impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

c. relative permeability of the distal tubule to water

d. transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of Henle

Definition
b. impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
Term

True or False:

 

The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Triglycerides and cholesterol do not circulate freely in the bloodstream

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Urea is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

The body requires adequate supplies of only three minerals (calcium, sodium, chloride) and trace amounts of all others

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

A deficit of potassium can cause rickets

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The kidney consumes about 10% of all oxygen by the body at rest

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

High levels of HDLs are considered good

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to stretch

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Glycogenesis begins when ATP levels are high, and glucose entering cells is phophoylated to glucose-6-phosphate and converted to its isomer, glucose-1-phosphate

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

An excessive urine output is called anuria

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Atrial naturetic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

The body's thermoregulatory centers are located in the thalamus

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Carb and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carb intermediate before being send through cellular respiration pathways

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Particles smaller than 3 nanometers are passed into the glomerular filtrate

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

There are 686 kilocalories of energy present in one mole of glucose, and 262 kilocalories of it is captured in the bonds of ATP molecules

Definition
True
Term

True or False:

 

Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL concentrations

Definition
False
Term

True or False:

 

Obligatory water reabsorption involves the moment of water along an osmotic gradient

Definition
True