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Anatomy & Physiology Saladin Chapter 9
Anatomy Chapter 9
119
Anatomy
04/09/2011

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Term
Joint/Articulation
Definition
any point where 2 bones meet
Term
Kinesiology
Definition
study of musculoskeletal movement
Term
Biomechanics
Definition

sub-discipline of kinesiology and the study of mechanical analogy of motion including physics, physiology, etc

 

study of the mechanical structure of a living organism using physics to describe structures and the analogy of machines to understand movement

Term
Arthrology
Definition
study of anatomy function, dysfunction, and treatment of joints
Term
Joint
Definition

shoulder, elbow, hips, and knee

 

self-lubricating, frictionless, weight-bearing, movable structures--which enable vertebrates and animals in general to do work

 

or immovable for strength of uniting 2 or more bones

 

typically named after bones involved in articulation

 

 

Term
Bony Joint/Synostosis
Definition

fused (anchylosis) osseous tissue

 

eg--frontal bones fuse, pre-maxilla fuse, bones of the mandible fuse together

Term
Fibrous Joints/Synarthrosis
Definition

collagenous joint

 

little or no movement

 

eg--cranial suture

Term
Cartilaginous Joint/Amphiarthrosis
Definition

bones held together by cartilage

 

slightly movable

 

eg--intercarpal, intertarsal, intervertebral joints

Term
Diarthrosis
Definition

freely movable joint

 

eg--elbow

Term
Synovial Joint
Definition

2 freely moving bones separated by a cavity filled with a lubricant synovial fluid

 

eg--jaw, shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee

 

structurally complex and can become uncomfortable and dysfunctional

 

healthy held separate by soft tissue and fluid by a joint (articular cavity)

Term
Articular Cavity
Definition
healthy synovial joints are held separate by soft tissue and fluid in cavity
Term
Synovial Fluid
Definition

fluid in joint/articular cavity

 

slippery and viscous; same consistency to a raw egg white

 

nourish articular cartilage and removes wastes by phagocytes

Term
Articular Cartilage
Definition

Hyaline cartilage

 

approx 2mm thick in young healthy joints

Term
Joint (Articular) Capsule
Definition

fibrous and encloses the joint cavity

 

2 layers: Fibrous capsule and Synovial membrane

Term
Fibrous capsule
Definition

outer layer of joint capsule

 

continuous with the periosteum

Term
Synovial Membrane
Definition

inner lining of the joint capsule

 

composed of areolar tissue and secretes fluid

Term
Menisci(-us)
Definition

cartilaginous pads that grow inward from the joint capsule

 

act as shock absorbers

 

holds the articulating bones in position to avoid dislocations

 

distributes pressure evenly during work

Term
accessory structures of a synovial joint
Definition
tendons, ligaments, bursae
Term
Tendon
Definition

attach a muscle to bone together by strips or sheets of collagenous connective tissue

 

stabilize joints

Term
Ligament
Definition
attach bone to bone composed of similar collagenous tissue
Term
Bursa
Definition

fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid and cushions muscles

 

help tendinal movement

 

can enhance mechanical effect (advantage)

Term
Tendon sheaths
Definition
cylindrical tubes wrapped around tendons especially in the hands and feet
Term
Resistance arm (LR)
Definition
portion of a lever from the fulcrum (joint) to the point of resistance
Term
Effort Arm (LE)
Definition
portion of a lever from the fulcrum to the point of effort
Term
Resistance
Definition

equals load and effort;

 

which is the energy needed to overcome it

Term
Mechanical advantage
Definition

MA = LE/LR

 

If MA > 1 -- lever produces more force, but less speed or distance

 

If MA < 1 -- lever produces more speed or distance, but less force

Term
Levers
Definition
long bones act as these; resistance arm and effort arm
Term
Fulcrum
Definition
joints act as these in mechanical advantage
Term
First-class lever
Definition

fulcrum is in the middle

 

example: seesaw

 

Term
Second-Class Lever
Definition

resistance is in the middle

 

example: lifting the handles of a wheelbarrow

Term
Third-Class Lever
Definition

effort is in the middle

 

most musculoskeletal levers are this kind

 

example: forearm acts as this when elbow is flexed; fulcrum is joint between ulna and humerus; effort is applied partially by biceps brachii; resistance is any weight in the hand or weight of forearm itself

Term
Ball-and-Socket Joint
Definition

shoulder and hip--only multiaxial joints in the body

 

hemispherical head fits into a cup-shaped socket (humeroscapular)

Term
Hinge Joint
Definition

convex surface fits into a concave surface; monaxial (one plane of movement)

 

limits lateral movement

 

examples: elbow, knee, and finger/toe joints

Term
Saddle Joint
Definition

saddle-shaped joint; both articulating surfaces are concave

 

biaxial

 

example: thumb and sternoclavicular joint

Term
Pivot Joint
Definition

rotational movement at a single point; monaxial

 

examples: atlantaoaxial joint between first 2 vertebrae and radioulnar joint at the elbow

Term
Gliding (Plane) Joints
Definition

flat articular surfaces move (slightly) over an adjacent bone; monaxial

 

examples: found between bones of carpals, tarsals, and articular processes of the vertebrae

Term
Condylar (Ellipsoid) Joint
Definition

oval convex surface articulates with a complimentary concave surface; biaxial

 

examples: radiocarpal joint and base of fingers (spread fingers apart)

Term
Flexion
Definition

decreases a joint angle; common in hinge joints

 

raise arm/raise thigh

Term
Extension
Definition

movement that straightens a joint and returns a body part in zero position (anatomical position)

 

examples: straightening elbow/wrist/knee; returning arm/thigh to zero position; hip and knee in stair climbing

Term
Hyperextension
Definition

furthur extension of a joint beyond the zero position

 

examples: admiring a ring = wrist; backswing of lower limb when you walk = hip

Term
Abduction
Definition

movement of body part in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body

 

example: spreading legs, raising arm to one side

 

hyper: arm if you raise it high enough to cross slightly over front or back of your head

Term
Adduction
Definition

movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline

 

hyper: stand with ankles crossed, cross fingers

Term
Elevation
Definition

movement that raises a body part vertically in the frontal plane

 

example: lifting suitcase, important for chewing

Term
Depression
Definition

movement that lowers a body part in the frontal plane

 

example: setting down a suitcase, important in chewing

Term
Protraction
Definition

anterior movement of a body part in the transverse/horizontal plane

 

example: shoulder when you push door open

Term
Retraction
Definition

posterior movement of a body part in the transverse/horizontal plane

 

example: shoulder returns back to zero position after pushing door open; military attention

Term
Circumduction
Definition

one end of an appendage remains stationary while the other end makes a circular motion

 

example: pitcher windmill; individual finger, hand, thigh, foot, trunk, and head

Term
Rotation
Definition

movement in which a bone spins on its longitudinal axis

 

example:
medial-bend elbow, move forearm medial, humerus spins

lateral-forearm points away from body, humerus spins

 

Term
Supination
Definition

forearm movement that turns palm to face anteriorly/upward

 

example: in anatomical postion, forearm is this and radius is parallel to ulna

Term
Pronation
Definition

forearm movement that causes the palm to face posteriorly/downward

 

example: radius crosses the ulna like an X

Term
Flexion of vertebral column
Definition
produces forward-bending movements
Term
Extension of vertebral column
Definition
straightens the trunk or neck as in standing up
Term
Hyperextension of head
Definition
looking up towards the sky or bending over backward
Term
Lateral flexion of Head/Trunk
Definition
tilting head or trunk to the right or left of the midline
Term
Right or Left Rotation
Definition

twisting at the waist or turning of the head when chest when face turns right or left

 

important in pitching and discus

Term
Protraction of Mandible
Definition
in preperation to bite, the mandible is this to bring the lower incisors foward
Term
Retraction of Mandible
Definition
mandible does this to put teeth in normal position after taking a bite
Term
Depression of Mandible
Definition
mandible does this to open the mouth to take a bite
Term
Elevation of Mandible
Definition
mandible does this so the incisors can cut off piece of food
Term
Lateral Excursion
Definition

movement to the left or right of the zero position

 

side-to-side movement of the mandible

Term
Medial Excursion
Definition

movement back to the median, zero position

 

side-to-side movement of the mandible

Term
Ulnar flexion
Definition

tilts the hand toward to little finger

 

example: waving

Term
Radial flexion
Definition

tilts the hand toward the thumb

 

example: waving

Term
Flexion of Fingers
Definition
curling fingers
Term
Extension of Fingers
Definition
straightening the fingers
Term
Abduction of Fingers
Definition
spreading fingers
Term
Adduction of Fingers
Definition
bringing fingers together so they touch
Term
Flexion of Thumb
Definition
bending the joints so the tip of the thumb is directed toward the palm
Term
Extension of Thumb
Definition
straightening the thumb
Term
Radial Abduction
Definition
moving thumb away from palm to form 90 degree angle
Term
Palmar Abduction
Definition

moves thumb away from plane of hand so it points anteriorly

 

example: wrap hand around tool

Term
Adduction of Thumb
Definition
bring thumb back to zero positoin, touching the base of the index finger
Term
Opposition
Definition
move the thumb to touch the tip of any of the other four fingers
Term
Reposition
Definition
return thumb to zero position
Term
Dorsiflexion
Definition

movement in which toes are elevated

 

example: applying toenail polish, foot does this as it comes forward in walking

Term
Plantar Flexion
Definition

powerful movement of the foot so the toes point downward

 

example: pressing gas pedal, standing on tip-toes, jump-shots

Term
Inversion
Definition
foot movement that tips the soles medially, somewhat facing eachother
Term
Eversion
Definition

foot movement that tips the soles laterally, away from each other

 

example: fast sports, ankle sprains

Term
Pronation of Foot
Definition
combination of dorsiflexion, eversion, and abduction
Term
Supination of Foot
Definition
combination of plantar flexion, inversion, and adduction
Term
Temporomandibular Joint
Definition

jaw joint

 

combines condylar, hinge, and plane joints

 

lateral and sphenomandibular ligament support this joint

Term
Humeroscapular Joint
Definition

shoulder or glenohumeral joint

 

most freely movable joint (shallow gleniod cavity and loose joint capsule) in the body and frequently injured

 

supported by 5 ligaments

Term
Glenoid Labrum
Definition
ring of fibrocartilage around margin of glenoid cavity that cats to deepen cavity
Term
Coracohumeral Ligament
Definition
extends from coracoid process of scapular to greater tubercle of humerus
Term
Transverse Humeral Ligament
Definition
extends from greater to lesser tubercle and forms a tunnel through which a biceps tendon passes
Term
Biceps Tendon
Definition

strap to hold humerus in place against glenoid cavity

 

held in groove by transverse humeral ligament

 

merges with biceps brachii

 

O: glenoid cavity

Term
Rotator Cuff
Definition

tendons of four muscles that also stabilize the shoulder

 

supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis

Term
Bursae of Shoulder
Definition
subdeltoid, subacromial, subcoracoid, subscapular
Term
Subluxation
Definition
incomplete dislocation of shoulder
Term
Elbow Joint
Definition
hinge joint composed of two articulations--humeroulnar and humeroradial joints that are enclosed in a single capsule
Term
Humeroulnar Joint
Definition
trochlea of humerus joins trochlear notch of ulna
Term
Humeroradial Joint
Definition
capitulum or humerus meets head of radius
Term
Radial (Lateral) Collateral Ligament and Ulnar (Medial) Collateral Ligament
Definition
side-to-side motions of the elbow joint restricted by this pair of ligaments
Term
Olecranon Bursa
Definition
eases the movement of tendons over the posterior surface of the elbow
Term
Proximal Radioulnar Joint
Definition
disc-like head of radius fits into radial notch of ulna at this joint
Term
Anular Ligament
Definition
ligament that holds proximal radioulnar joint in place
Term
Hip (Coxal) Joint
Definition

primary weight-bearing ball-and-socket joint for bipedal human

 

articulation of the femur head and the os coxae of the acetabulum

 

support provided by several ligaments that hold femur to acetabulum

Term
Acetabular Labrum
Definition
ring of fibrocartilage of the hip joint that acts to deepen the socket
Term
Iliofemoral and Pubofemoral Ligaments
Definition
hip joint is supported by these two anterior ligaments that hold the femur into the acetabulum
Term
Ischiofemoral ligament
Definition
support of the hip joint by this posterior ligament
Term
Round Ligament (Ligamentum teres)
Definition

distinctive ligament from the head of the femur to the lower margin of the acetabulum

 

contains an artery that supplies blood to the head of femur

Term
Transverse Acetabular Ligament
Definition
bridges a gap in the inferior margin of the acetabulum
Term
Knee (Tibiofemoral) Joint
Definition

largest and most complex diarthrosis joint of the body; it is a hinge joint

 

joint capsule encloses the sides and back of knee

Term
Patellafemoral Joint
Definition
patella and petellar ligament form this associated gliding joint and covers anterior surface of the knee
Term
Quadriceps Femoris and Semimembranous
Definition
muscles that stabilize the knee; strengthening reduces risk of injury
Term
Lateral/Medial Menisci
Definition
within the knee joint cavity, these cushion and stabilze the knee
Term
Popliteal Region
Definition
back of knee
Term
Fibular and Tibial Collateral Ligament(s)
Definition
two collateral ligaments of the knee joint that prevent the knee from lateral rotation
Term
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
Definition

ligament in the knee joint that prevents hyperextension of the knee

 

excluded from fluid-filled synovial cavity

 

most knee injuries; damanged ligaments can be replaced with a graft

Term
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
Definition
ligament of the knee joint that prevents posterior knee displacement
Term
Arthroscopic Surgery
Definition
greatly improved repair, recovery time, and levels of pain associated with knee surgery
Term
Ankle (Talocrural) Joint
Definition
joint has two articulations (medial joint between tibia and talus AND lateral joint between fibula and talus) which are both enclosed in one capsule
Term
Malleoli (Malleolus) of Tibia and Fibula
Definition
bone of the foot;' prevents side-to-side rotation of ankle
Term
Anterior/Posterior Tibiofibular Ligaments
Definition
ligaments of ankle joint that anchor tibia to fibula
Term
Deltoid Ligament
Definition
ligament of ankle joint that anchors tibia to foot (calcaneus, talus, and navicular) on medial side
Term
Lateral Collateral Ligament
Definition
ligament of ankle joint that anchors fibula to lateral side of foot
Term
Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon
Definition
tendon in the ankle that extends from the gastrocnemius to the calcaneus, which allows us to flex our feet
Term
Sprains
Definition
torn ligaments/tendons and inflammation of the ankle are often lumped together under this one term; can vary greatly in severity
Term
Arthritis
Definition
broad term for pain and inflammation of a joint