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Advanced Medical Terminology
Lesson 10: Nervous System
160
Medical
06/08/2008

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Term
CEREBRUM FUNCTION
Definition
Thinking, personality, sensations,movements, memory
Term
THALAMUS FUNCTION
Definition
Relay station for sensory impluses; pain
Term
HYPOTHALAMUS FUNCTION
Definition
Body temperature, sleep, appetite, emotions, control of the pituitary gland
Term
CEREBELLUM FUNCTION
Definition
Coordination of voluntary movements and balance
Term
PONS FUNCTION
Definition
Connection of nerves (to the eyes and face)
Term
MEDULLA OBLONGATA FUNCTION
Definition
Nerve fibers cross over left to right and right to left; contains centers to regulate heart, blood vessels, and repiratory system
Term
ACETYLCHOLINE
Definition
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends (synapses) of nerve cells
Term
AFFERENT NERVES
Definition
Carry messages TOWARD the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves)
Term
ARACHNOID MEMBRANES
Definition
Middle layer of three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. The Greek arachne means spider
Term
ASTROCYTE
Definition
A type of glial (neurologic) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
Term
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Definition
Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
Term
AXON
Definition
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
Term
BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
Definition
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out
Term
BRAINSTEM
Definition
Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. The pons and medulla oblongata are part of the brainstem
Term
CAUDA EQUINA
Definition
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
Term
CELL BODY
Definition
Part of the nerve that contains the nucleus
Term
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
Definition
Brain and spinal cord
Term
CEREBELLUM
Definition
Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
Term
CEREBRAL CORTEX
Definition
Outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
Term
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF)
Definition
Fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
Term
CEREBRUM
Definition
Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory
Term
CRANIAL NERVES
Definition
Twelve (12) pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain
Term
DENDRITE
Definition
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
Term
DURA MATER
Definition
Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord (Latin for hard mother)
Term
EFFERENT NERVES
Definition
Carry messages AWAY FROM the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
Term
GANGLION (PL. GANGLIA)
Definition
Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
Term
GLIAL CELL (NEUROGLIAL CELL)
Definition
Cell in the nervous system that is supportive and connective in function. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes
Term
GYRUS (GYRI)
Definition
Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebellum; convolution
Term
HYPOTHALAMUS
Definition
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
Term
MEDULLA OBLONGATA
Definition
Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here
Term
MENINGES
Definition
Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Term
MICROGLIAL CELL
Definition
Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
Term
MOTOR NERVES
Definition
Carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerves
Term
MYELIN SHEATH
Definition
White fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons
Term
NERVE
Definition
Macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
Term
NEURON
Definition
Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body
Term
NEUROTRANSMITTER
Definition
Chemical messenger, released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell
Term
OLIGODENDROGLIAL CELL
Definition
Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte
Term
PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES
Definition
Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal bosy functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract
Term
PARENCHYMA
Definition
Essential, distinguishing tissue of the nervous system; includes the brain and spinal cord. This is to distinguish it from surrounding tissues such as meninges
Term
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
Definition
Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves
Term
PIA MATER
Definition
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
Term
PLEXUS (PL. PLEXUSES)
Definition
Large, interlacing network of nerves. Ex are lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial plexuses.
Term
PONS
Definition
Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain
Term
RECEPTOR
Definition
Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body. The skin, eyes, ears, and taste buds are receptors
Term
SCIATIC NERVE
Definition
Nerve extending from the base of the spine, down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve
Term
SENSORY NERVES
Definition
Carry messages to the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerves
Term
SPINAL NERVES
Definition
Thirty one (31) pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin
Term
STIMULUS (STIMULI)
Definition
Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external enviroment that evokes a response.
Term
STROMA
Definition
Connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain
Term
SULCUS (PL. SULCI)
Definition
Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
Term
SYMPATHETIC NERVES
Definition
Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
Term
SYNAPSE
Definition
Space through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another or from a neuron to another cell, such as a muscle or gland cell
Term
THALAMUS
Definition
Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum
Term
VAGUS NERVE
Definition
Tenth (10th) cranial nerve; it's branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach
Term
VENTRICLES OF THE BRAIN
Definition
Canals of the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
Term
CEREBELL/O
Definition
Cerebellum
Term
CEREBR/O
Definition
Cerebrum
Term
DUR/O
Definition
Dura mater
Term
ENCEPHAL/O
Definition
Brain
Term
GLI/O
Definition
Glial cells
Term
LEPT/O
Definition
Thin, slender
Term

MENING/O

MENINGI/O 

Definition
Membranes, meninges
Term
MY/O
Definition
Muscle
Term
MYEL/O
Definition
Spinal cord; bone marrow
Term
NEUR/O
Definition
Nerve
Term
PONT/O
Definition
Pons
Term
RADICUL/O
Definition
Nerve root (of spinal nerves)
Term
THALAM/O
Definition
Thalamus
Term
THEC/O
Definition
Sheath (refers to meninges)
Term
VAG/O
Definition
Vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)
Term
ALGES/O
Definition
Excessive sensitivity to pain
Term
-ALGESIA
Definition
Excessive sensitivity to pain
Term
-ALGIA
Definition
Pain
Term
CAUS/O
Definition
Burning
Term
COMAT/O
Definition
Deep sleep
Term
ESTHESI/O
Definition
Feeling, nervous sensation
Term
-ESTHESIA
Definition
Feeling, nervous sensation
Term

KINES/O

KINESI/O 

Definition
Movement
Term

-KINESIA

-KINESIS

-KINESIC 

Definition
Movement
Term
-LEPSY
Definition
Seizure
Term
LEX/O
Definition
Word, phrase
Term
-PARESIS
Definition
Weakness
Term
-PHASIA
Definition
Speech
Term
-PLEGIA
Definition
Paralysis
Term
-PRAXIA
Definition
Action
Term
-STHENIA
Definition
Strength
Term
SYNCOP/O
Definition
To cut off, cut short
Term
TAX/O
Definition
Order, coordination
Term
HYDROCEPHALUS
Definition
Abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain.
Term
SPINA BIFIDA
Definition
Congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defects)
Term
ALZHEIMER DISEASE (AD)
Definition
Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration (dementia) with personality changes and impairment of daily functioning.
Term
AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS (ALS)
Definition
Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. AKA Lou Gehrig's disease
Term
EPILEPSY
Definition
Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity.
Term
HUNTINGTON DISEASE
Definition
Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration.
Term
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)
Definition
Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue.
Term
MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (MG)
Definition
Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness (-asthenia) of voluntary muscles (attached to bones)
Term
PALSY
Definition
Paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
Term
PARKINSON DISEASE (PARKINSONISM)
Definition
Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occuring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement
Term
TOURETTE SYNDROME
Definition
Involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; inappropriate words
Term
HERPES ZOSTER (SHINGLES)
Definition
Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
Term
MENINGITIS
Definition
Inflammation of the meninges; leptomeningitis
Term
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) ENCEPHALOPATHY
Definition
Brain disease and dementia occuring with AIDS
Term
BRAIN TUMOR
Definition
Abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges
Term
CEREBRAL CONCUSSION
Definition
Temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury, usually clearing within 24 hours.
Term
CEREBRAL CONTUSION
Definition
Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic deficits persist longer than 24 hours.
Term
CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT (CVA)
Definition
Disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke.
Term
ABSENCE SEIZURE
Definition
Minor (petit mal) form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness and surroundings.
Term
ANEURYSM
Definition
Enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to a hemorrhage and CVA (stroke).
Term
ASTROCYTOMA
Definition
Malignant tumor of astrocytes (glial brain cells)
Term
AURA
Definition
Peculiar sensation experienced by some persons with epilepsy before onset of an actual seizure
Term
BLAST
Definition
Immature cells
Term
DEMENTIA
Definition
Mental decline and deterioration
Term
DEMYELINATION
Definition
Destruction of myelin on axons of nerves (as in multiple sclerosis)
Term
DOPAMINE
Definition
CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patient with Parkinson disease.
Term
EMBOLUS
Definition
A mass (clot) of material travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel.
Term
GAIT
Definition
Manner of walking
Term
HERPES ZOSTER
Definition
Herpes virus that causes shingles-eruption of blisters in a pattern that follows the path of peripheral nerves around the trunk of the body; zoster means girdle.
Term
ICTAL EVENT
Definition
Pertaining to sudden, acute onset, as the convulsions of an epileptic seizure.
Term
OCCLUSION
Definition
Blockage
Term
PALLIATIVE
Definition
Relieving symptoms but not curing
Term
THYMECTOMY
Definition
Removal of the thymus gland (a lymphocyte-producing gland in the chest); used as treatment for myasthenia gravis
Term
TIA
Definition
Transient ischemic attack
Term
TIC
Definition
Involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic of Tourette syndrome
Term
TONIC-CLONIC SEIZURE
Definition
Major (grand mal) convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements
Term
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID ANALYSIS
Definition
Samples of CSF are examined
Term
CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY
Definition
X-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessel system in the brain after injection of contrast.
Term
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF THE BRAIN (CT)
Definition
X-ray technique that generates computerized cross-sectional images of the brain and spinal cord.
Term
MYELOGRAPHY
Definition
X-ray imaging of the spinal canal after injection of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space
Term
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) OF THE BRAIN
Definition
Magnetic and radio waves create an image of the brain in all three planes
Term
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) SCAN
Definition
Computerized radiologic technique using radioactive glucose to image the metabolic activity of cells
Term
DOPPLER/ULTRASOUND STUDIES
Definition
Sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries
Term
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG)
Definition
Recording of the electrical activity in the brain
Term
LUMBAR PUNCTURE (LP)
Definition
CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae
Term
STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY
Definition
Use of specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain
Term
AD
Definition
Alzheimer disease
Term
AFP
Definition
Alpha-fetoprotein; elevated levels in amniotic fluid and maternal blood are associated with congenital malformations of the nervous system, such as anencephaly and spina bifida
Term
ALS
Definition
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis- Lou Gehrig's disease
Term
AVM
Definition
Arteriovenous malformation; congenital tangle of arteries and veins in the cerebrum
Term
CNS
Definition
Central nervous system
Term
CSF
Definition
Cerebrospinal fluid
Term
CT
Definition
Computed tomography
Term
CVA
Definition
Cerebrovascular accident
Term
EEG
Definition
Electroencephalography
Term
GABA
Definition
Gamma-amniobutyric acid (neurotransmitter)
Term
ICP
Definition
Intracranial pressure (normal pressure is 5 to 15 mm Hg)
Term
LP
Definition
Lumbar puncture
Term
MAC
Definition
Monitered anesthetic care
Term
MG
Definition
Myasthenia gravis
Term
MRA
Definition
Magnetic resonance angiography
Term
MRI
Definition
Magnetic resonance imaging
Term
MS
Definition
Multiple sclerosis
Term
1/2P
Definition
Hemiparesis
Term
PET
Definition
Positron emission tomography
Term
PSRS
Definition
Proton stereotactic radiosurgery
Term
Sz
Definition
Seizure
Term
TBI
Definition
Tramatic brain injury
Term
TENS
Definition
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; technique using a battery powered device to relieve acute and chronic pain
Term
TIA
Definition
Transient ischemic attack; temporary interface with the blood supply to the brain
Term
tPA
Definition
Tissue plasminogen activator; a clot dissolving drug used as therapy for strokes