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Abnormal Psychology Test 2
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Psychology
09/26/2012

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Term
Models/Paradigms
Definition
In science, the perspectives used to explain events.
Term
The Biological Model
Definition
Adopts a medical perspective. Main focus is that psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of an organism. Typically point to problems in brain anatomy or brain chemistry.
Term
Glia
Definition
Support cells, translated to glue.
Term
Brain Anatomy
Definition
The brain is composed of ~100 billion nerve cells and thousands of billions of support cells. Within the brain, large groups of neurons form distinct areas called brain regions.
Term
Neurons
Definition
Nerve cells.
Term
Brain Chemistry
Definition
Information is communicated throughout the brain in the form of electrical impulses that travel from one neuron to one or more others. An impulse is first received by a neuron's dendrites, travels down the axon, and is transmitted through the nerve endings to other neurons.
Term
Brain Chemistry (2)
Definition
Neurons do not actually touch each other, they are separated by a space (the synapse), across which a message moves. When an electrical impulse reaches a nerve ending, the ending is stimulated to release a chemical called a neurotransmitter (NT), that travels across the synaptic space to receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons.
Term
Sources of Biological Abnormalities:
Definition
Genetics, Evolution, and Viral Infections.
Term
Biological Treatments
Definition
Drug Therapy, Electroconvulsive Therapy, Psychosurgery
Term
Four Major Drug Groups
Definition
1. Antianxiety Drugs (anxiolytics; minor tranquilizers)
2. Antidepressant drugs
3. Antibipolar drugs (mood stabilizers)
4. Antipsychotic drugs (Also used for people who have trouble sleeping)
Term
Strengths of Biological Model
Definition
1. Enjoys considerable respect in the field.
2. Constantly produces valuable new information.
3. Treatment brings great relief.
Term
Weaknesses of Biological Model
Definition
1. Can limit, rather than enhance, our understanding, it is too simplistic.
2. Treatments produce significant undesirable (negative) effects.
Term
The Psychodynamic Model
Definition
Oldest and most famous psychological model. Based on belief that a person's behavior is determined largely by underlying dynamic - that is, interacting psychological forces of which she/he is not consciously aware.
Term
The Unconscious Forces
Definition
1. Id
2. Ego
3. Superego
Term
Id
Definition
Guided by the pleasure principle, instinctual needs, drives and impulses, sexual; fueled by libido.
Term
Ego
Definition
Guided by the reality Principle, seeks gratification, but guides us to know when we can and cannot express our wishes. Ego defense mechanisms protect us from anxiety.
Term
Superego
Definition
Guided by the Morality Principle, conscious, unconsciously adopted from our parents.
Term
Oral Stage
Definition
0-8 months of age
Term
Anal
Definition
18 months to 3 years of age.
Term
Phallic
Definition
3 to 5 years of age
Term
Latency
Definition
5 to 12 years of age
Term
Genital
Definition
12 years of age to adulthood
Term
Ego theorists
Definition
Emphasize the role of the ego; consider it independent and powerful.
Term
Self theorists
Definition
Emphasize the unified personality.
Term
Object-relations theorists
Definition
Emphasize the human need for relationships, especially between children and caregivers.
Term
Strengths of the Psychodynamic Model
Definition
1. First to recognize importance of psychological theories and treatments.
2. Saw abnormal functioning as rooted in the same processes as normal functioning.
3. First to apply theory and techniques systematically to treatment - monumental impact on the field.
Term
Weaknesses of Psychodynamic Model
Definition
1. Unsupported ideas.
2. Difficult to Research.
3. Non-observable.
4. Inaccessible to human subject (unconscious).
Term
The Behavioral Model
Definition
Believe that our actions are determined largely by our experiences in life. Concentrates wholly on behaviors and environmental factors. Bases explanations and treatments on principles of learning.
Term
Forms of Conditioning
Definition
1. Operant Conditioning
2. Modeling
3. Classical Conditioning
Term
Operant Conditioning
Definition
Humans and animals learn to behave in certain ways as a result of receiving rewards whenever they do so.
Term
Modeling
Definition
Individuals learn responses by observing and repeating behavior.
Term
Classical Conditioning
Definition
Learning by temperal association - When two events repeatedly occur close to together in time, they become fueled in a person's mind; before long, the person responds in the same way to both events.
Term
Behavioral Therapies
Definition
Aim to identify the behaviors that are causing problems and replace them with more appropriate ones.
Term
Systematic Desensitization
Definition
Step by Step Procedure
1. Learn relaxation skills
2. Construct a fear hierarchy.
3. Confront feared situations.
Term
Strengths of Behavioral Model
Definition
1. Powerful force in the field.
2. Can be tested in the laboratory.
3. Significant research support for behavioral therapies.
Term
Weaknesses of Behavioral Model
Definition
1. No evidence that symptoms are ordinarily acquired through conditioning.
2. Behavioral therapy is limited.
3. Too simplistic.
Term
The Cognitive Model
Definition
This model proposes that we can best understand abnormal functioning by looking at cognitive processes - the center of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions.
Term
Strengths of Cognitive Model
Definition
1. Very broad appeal
2. Clinically useful and effective
3. Focuses on a unique human process
4. Theories lend themselves to research
5. Therapies effective in treating several disorders
Term
Weaknesses of Cognitive Model
Definition
1. Precise role of cognition and abnormality have yet to be determined.
2. Therapies do not help everyone.
3. Some changes may not be possible to achieve.
Term
The Humanistic-Existential Model
Definition
Emphasis on people as friendly, cooperative, and constructive; focus on drive to self-actualize through honest recognition of strengths and weaknesses.

Emphasis on self-determination, choice, and individual responsibility; focus on authenticity.
Term
Client-Centered Therapy
Definition
Therapists create a supportive climate through unconditional positive regard, accurate empathy, and genuineness.
Term
Gestalt Theory and Therapy
Definition
Goal is to guide client toward self-recognition through challenge and frustration through skillful frustration, role playing, and rules.
Term
Existential Theories and Therapy
Definition
Belief that psychological dysfunction is caused by self-deception; people hide from life's responsibilities and fail to recognize that it is up to them to give meaning to their life.
Term
Strengths of Humanistic-Existential Model
Definition
1. Taps into domains missing from other theories.
2. Emphasizes the individual.
3. Optimistic
4. Emphasizes health.
Term
Weaknesses of Humanistic-Existential Model
Definition
1. Focuses on abstract ideas.
2. Difficult to research.
3. Weakened by disapproval of scientific approach.
Term
Sociocultural Models
Definition
Argue that abnormal behavior is best understood in light of the social and cultural forces that influence an individual. Address norms and roles in society.
Term
Two Major Perspectives of Sociocultural Models
Definition
1. Family-Social Perspective
2. Multicultural Perspective
Term
Family-Social Theorists
Definition
Proponents of this model argue that theorists should concentrate on forces that operate directly on an individual including: social labels and roles, diagnostic labels, and social connections and supports.
Term
Family-Social Treatments
Definition
Group therapy, family therapy, couple therapy, and community treatment.
Term
Multicultural Theorists
Definition
Culture refers to the set of values, attitudes, beliefs, history, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to the next.
Term
Strengths of Sociocultural Models
Definition
1. Added greatly to the clinical understanding of treatment and abnormality.
2. Increased awareness of clinical and social roles.
3. Clinically successful when other treatments have failed.
Term
Weaknesses of Sociocultural Models
Definition
1. Research is difficult to interpret.
2. Model unable to predict in abnormality in specific individuals.
Term
Biopsychosocial Theories
Definition
Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, and societal influences.
Term
Fear
Definition
A state of immediate alarm in response to a serious, known threat to one's well-being.
Term
Anxiety
Definition
A state of alarm in response to a vague sense of being in danger.
Term
Six Anxiety Disorders
Definition
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
2. Phobias
3. Panic Disorder
4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
5. Acute stress disorder
6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Term
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Definition
Characterized by excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry about practically anything. Free-floating anxiety.
Term
Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Sociocultural Perspective
Definition
According to this theory, GAD is most likely to develop in people faced with social conditions that truly are dangerous.
Term
Poverty
Definition
One of the most powerful forms of societal stress.
Term
Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Psychodynamic Perspective
Definition
Related to Freud, contains:
1. Realistic Anxiety
2. Neurotic Anxiety
3. Moral Anxiety
Term
Realistic Anxiety
Definition
When someone faces actual danger.
Term
Neurotic Anxiety
Definition
When someone is prevented from expressing id impulses.
Term
Moral Anxiety
Definition
When someone is punished for expressing id impulses.
Term
Psychodynamic therapists' approach to all problems:
Definition
1. Free association
2. Therapist interpretations of transference, resistance, and dreams
Term
Generalized Anxiety Disorder - The Humanistic Perspective
Definition
Psychological disorders arise when people stop looking at themselves honestly and acceptingly.
Term
Generalized Anxiety Disorder - The Cognitive Perspective
Definition
Psychological problems are often caused by dysfunctional ways of thinking.
Term
Imminent Danger
Definition
A situation/person is unsafe until proven save. It is always best to assume the worst.
Term
Metacognitive Theory
Definition
Developed by Wells; suggests that the most problematic assumptions in GAD are the individual's worry about worrying (meta-worry)
Term
Intolerance of Uncertainty Theory
Definition
Certain individuals consider it unacceptable that negative events may occur, even if the possibility is very small; they worry in an effort to find "correct" solutions.
Term
Avoidance Theory
Definition
Developed by Borkovec; holds that worrying serves a "positive" function for those with GAD by reducing unusually high levels of bodily arousal.
Term
Ellis's Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET)
Definition
1. Point out irrational assumptions.
2. Suggest more appropriate assumptions.
3. Assign related homework.
4. Studies suggest at least modest relief from treatment.
Term
Generalized Anxiety Disorder - The Biological Perspective
Definition
Biological theorists believe that GAD is caused chiefly by biological factors.
Term
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
Definition
A common neurotransmitter in the brain that carries inhibitory messages when received, it causes a neuron to stop firing.
Term
Relaxation Training
Definition
Physical relaxation will lead to psychological relaxation.
Term
Biofeedback
Definition
Therapist uses electrical signals from the body to train people to control physiological processes.
Term
Phobia
Definition
Persistent and unreasonable fears of particular objects, activities, or situations.
Term
Specific Phobias
Definition
Persistent fears of specific objects or situations.
Term
Stimulus Generalization
Definition
Responses to one stimulus are also elicited by similar stimuli.
Term
Exposure Treatment
Definition
Desensitization, flooding, and modeling
Term
Flooding
Definition
Forced non-gradual exposure
Term
Narrow Social Phobia
Definition
Talking, performing, eating or writing in public
Term
Social Phobia
Definition
Severe, persistent, and irrational fears of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur.
Term
Broad Social Phobia
Definition
General fear of functioning poorly in front of others.
Term
Panic
Definition
an extreme anxiety reaction, can result when a real threat suddenly emerges
Term
Panic Attacks
Definition
Periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak, and pass.
Term
Panic Disorder
Definition
Some people have panic attacks repeatedly, unexpectedly, and without apparent reason.
Term
Agoraphobia
Definition
People afraid to leave home and travel to locations from which escape might be difficult or help unavailable.
Term
Norepinephrine
Definition
Neurotransmitter at work in panic disorder.
Term
Anxiety Sensitivity
Definition
Focus on bodily sensations much of the time, unable to assess the sensations logically, and interpret them as potentially harmful.
Term
Cognitive Therapy
Definition
Tries to correct people's misinterpretations of their bodily sensations:
Step 1: Educate clients
Step 2: Teach clients to apply more accurate interpretations (especially when stressed)
Step 3: Teach clients skills for coping with anxiety.
Term
Biological Challenge
Definition
Induce physical sensations which cause feelings of panic, practice coping strategies and making more accurate interpretations.
Term
Obsessions
Definition
Persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that seem to invade a person's consciousness.
Term
Compulsions
Definition
Repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that people feel they must perform to prevent or reduce anxiety.
Term
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Diagnosis
Definition
1. Feel excessive or unreasonable
2. Cause great distress
3. Take up much time
4. Interfere with daily functions
Term
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Definition
Classified as an anxiety disorder because obsessions cause anxiety, while compulsions are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety.
Term
OCD: Psychodynamic Perspective
Definition
Anxiety disorders develop when children come to fear their id impulses and use ego defense mechanisms to less their anxiety.
Term
Id Impulses
Definition
Obsessive Thoughts
Term
Ego Defenses
Definition
Counter-thoughts or compulsive actions.
Term
Isolation
Definition
Disown disturbing thoughts (ego defense mechanism)
Term
Undoing
Definition
Perform acts to "cancel out" thoughts (ego defense mechanisms)
Term
Reaction Formation
Definition
Take on lifestyle in contrast to unacceptable impulses (ego defense mechanisms)
Term
OCD: Behavioral Perspective
Definition
Behaviorists have concentrated on explaining and treating compulsions rather than obsessions.
Term
Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP)
Definition
Clients are repeatedly exposed to anxiety-provoking stimuli and are told to resist performing the compulsions.
Term
OCD: The Cognitive Perspective
Definition
Everyone has repetitive, unwanted, and intrusive thoughts. People with OCD blame themselves for normal thoughts and expect that terrible things will happen as a result.
Term
Neutralizing Thoughts/Actions
Definition
1. Seeking reassurance
2. Thinking "good" thoughts
3. Washing
4. Checking
Term
Assessment
Definition
Collecting relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion.
Term
Idiographic
Definition
An individual person
Term
Standardize a Technique
Definition
Set up common steps to be followed whenever it is administered.
Term
Reliability
Definition
Consistency of an assessment measure.
Term
Test-Retest Reliability
Definition
Yields the same results every time it is given to the same people.
Term
Interrater Reliability
Definition
Different judges independently agree on how to score and interpret a particular tool.
Term
Validity
Definition
Refers to the accuracy of a tool's results.
Term
Face Validity
Definition
A tool appears to measure what it is supposed to measure; does not necessarily indicate true validity.
Term
Predictive Validity
Definition
A tool that accurately predicts future characteristics or behavior.
Term
Concurrent Validity
Definition
A tool's results agree with independent measures assessing similar characteristics or behavior.
Term
Clinical Interviews
Definition
These face-to-face encounters often are the first contact between a client and a clinician/assessor.
Term
Unstructured Interview
Definition
Clinicians ask open-ended questions.
Term
Structured Interview
Definition
Clinicians ask prepared questions, often from a published interview schedule.
Term
Projective Clinical Tests
Definition
Require that clients interpret vague and ambiguous stimuli or follow open-ended instruction.
Term
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Definition
Consists of more than 500 self-statements that can be answered "true", "false" or "cannot say".
Term
Personality Inventories
Definition
Designed to measure broad personality characteristics, focus on behaviors, beliefs, and feelings.
Term
Response Inventories
Definition
Usually based on self-reported responses, focus on one specific area of functioning.
Term
Psychophysiological tests
Definition
Measures physiological response as an indication of psychological problems. Most popular is the polygraph.
Term
Neurological Neuropsychological tests
Definition
Neurological tests directly assess brain function by assessing brain structure and activity.
Term
Naturalistic Observations
Definition
Occur in every day environments.
Term
Analog Observations
Definition
Used and conducted in artificial settings.
Term
Self-Monitoring
Definition
People observe themselves and carefully record the frequency of certain behaviors, feelings or cognitions as they occur over time.
Term
Classification Systems
Definition
Lists of categories, disorders, and symptom descriptions, with guidelines for assignment.
Term
Axis 1
Definition
Most frequently diagnosed disorders, except personality disorders and mental retardation.
Term
Axis II
Definition
Personality disorders and mental retardation
Term
Axis III
Definition
Relevant general medical conditions.
Term
Axis IV
Definition
Psychosocial and environmental problems.
Term
Axis V
Definition
Global assessment of psychological, social, and occupational functioning (GAF)
Term
Uniformity Myth
Definition
Outcome studies lump all therapies together to consider their general effectiveness.
Term
Rapproachment
Definition
Movement to look at commonalities among therapies, regardless of clinician orientation.