Shared Flashcard Set

Details

ABA Exam #2 Bosch
N/A
43
Psychology
02/03/2009

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Contingent Exercise
Definition
Form of Positive Punishment applied immediately after the undesired behaviour forcing the actor to engage in physical activity that decreases the probabality that the behaviour will occur in the future
Term
Time Out from Positive reinforcement
Definition
A form of positive punishment in which the actor is removed from a reinforcing situation for a brief period after the problem behaviour occurs.
Term
Response Cost
Definition
Form of positive punishment in which every time an undesired behaviour occurs the actor loses a reinforcer.
Term
Conditioned Punisher
Definition
Stimuli or events that function as punishers only after being paired with unconditioned punishers (ex. threats of harm, certain facial expressions)
Term
Generalized Conditioned Punisher
Definition
A Punisher that has been paired with many Conditioned and Unconditioned punishers across a persons life (ex. the command "No")
Term
Negative Punishment
Definition
A form of Punishment in which immediately afterwords there is the removal of a reinforcing stimulus and as a result the behaviour is less likely to occur in the future
Term
Positive Punishment
Definition
A form of Punishment in which immediately afterwords there is the presentation of an aversive stimulus and as a result the behaviour is less likely to occur in the future
Term
Punisher/Aversive Stimulus
Definition
A consequence which makes a particular behaviour less likely to occur in the future
Term
Punishment
Definition
Immediately following a behaviour a consequence occurs which, as a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur in the future
Term
Unconditioned Punisher
Definition
Punisher that induces pain or extreme levels of stimulation
Term
Immediacy, Contingency, Establishing Operations, Individual Differences, Magnitude
Definition
Factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment/reinforcement
Term
Establishing Operations
Definition
An event or a condition that makes a consequence more or less effective as a punisher/reinforcer
Term
Negative reinforcement of a punisher
Definition
An ethical concern with punishment, that if the undesired behaviour is aversive to the punisher it is likely to be abused by him/her
Term
Extinction
Definition
When: A behaviour has been previously reinforced, it no longer results in reinforcing consequence, and therefore the behaviour stops occuring in the future
Term
Extinction Burst
Definition
Increases in frequency, duration, or intensity of hte unreinforced behavour during extinction
Term
Resistance to Extinction

Definition
When intermittent reinforcement is used before extinction occurs
Term
Spontaneous Recovery
Definition
When a behaviour occurs again even after it has not occurred for some time after extinction
Term
1. Collect data to asess treatment effects
2. Identify the reinforcer for the problem behaviour through Functional Assesment
3. Eliminate the reinforcer after each instance of the problem behaviour.
4.Consider the schedule of reinforcement of reinforcement for the problem behaviour
5. Reinforce alternative behaviours
6. Promote generalization and maintenance
Definition
Steps in using Extinction
Term
1.Have you IDed the reinforcer?
2. Can you eliminate the reinforcer?
3. Is extinction safe to use?
4. Can an extinction burst be tolerated?
5. Can consistency be maintained
Definition
Factors to consider before using Extinction.
Term
Antecedents
Definition
Stimulus events that precede an operant response
Term
Stimulus Control
Definition
When there is an increased probability that a behaviour will occur in the presence of a specific antecedent stimulus or when a stimulus from a specific class is present
Term
Discriminative Stimulus
Definition
During stimulus control, the antecedent stimulus that is present when a behaviour is reinforced
Term
Stimulus Discrimination Training
Definition
When a discriminative stimulus is present the behaviour is reinforced, when any other antecedent stimulus is present the behaviour is not reinforced
Term
Stimulus Discrimination Training
Definition
When a discriminative stimulus is present the behaviour is reinforced, when any other antecedent stimulus is present the behaviour is not reinforced
Term
S-Delta
Definition
Any antecedent that is present during stimulus discrimination training, when the behaviour is not reinforced
Term
Three-term Contingency
Definition
In stimulus discrimination training, when the consequence is contingent on the occurrence of the behaviour only in the presence of the specific antecedent stimulus
Term
Generalization
Definition
The occurence of a normally stimulus controlled behaviour in the presence of an antecedent that is somehow similar to the Discriminative Stimulus
Term
Generalization Gradient
Definition
The correlation between; the similarity of the delta stimulus and the discriminitave stimulus, and the likelihood that the Response will occur
Term
Discriminative Stimulus
Definition
S^D
Term
R
Definition
Response
Term
Reinforcer
Definition
S^R
Term
Punisher
Definition
S^P
Term
Stimulus Class
Definition
Antecedent stimuli that share similar features and have the same functional effect on a particular behaviour
Term
Application of aversive activities
Definition
A form of positive punishment that involves, as a consequence of an undesired behaviour, the forced action of unwanted activities
Term
Premak Principle
Definition
When a high probability behaviour is paired with a low probability behaviour the high probability behaviour is less likely to occur
Term
Overcorrection
Definition
When the actor is forced, as a form of punishment, to engage in an effortful behaviour for an extended period contingent on each instance of the problem behaviour
Term
Positive Practice
Definition
A form of overcorrection in which, the actor has to engage in an appropriate or correct form of the problem behaviour many times over
Term
Restitution
Definition
When the actor has to correct his/her actions and restore the environment to a condition which was better than that before the undesired behaviour
Term
Guided Compliance
Definition
When, after a request is made (and either ignored or the desired action is not carried out) the actor is physically brought to do the action until he/she does it willingly. A form of positive punishment and negative reinforcement.
Term
Physical Restraint
Definition
A form of punishment in which the actor is bound and unable to move for a set period of time by a second person (caregiver, etc)
Term
Response Blocking
Definition
When the actor is physically restrained from completing an action that is undesired. (Hands held so that a child cannot suck their thumb)
Term
Application of aversive stimuli
Definition
A positive punishment situation in which an unwanted stimulus is presented after the unwanted behaviour
Term
Differential Reinforcement
Definition
The reinforcing of a behaviour alternate to that of the undesired one