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A & P II
Module 1
47
Anatomy
09/08/2011

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Cards

Term
Acromegaly
Definition
Abnormal growth of the hands, feet, and face, caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.
Term
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Definition
Anterior pituitary hormone that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex.
Term
Aldosterone
Definition
Hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that regulates Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion by the kidneys.
Term
Androgen
Definition
A hormone such as testosterone that controls male secondary sex characteristics.
Term
Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
Definition
The glandular part of the pituitary gland.
Term
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH or vasopressin)
Definition
Hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb more water, reducing urine volume.
Term
Calcitonin
Definition
Hormone released by the thyroid. Lowers blood calcium levels only when present at high (therapeutic) levels.
Term
Cortisol (hydrocortisone)
Definition
Glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex.
Term
Cretinism
Definition
Severe hypothyroidism resulting in physical and mental stunting in infants. It is characterized by mental retardation, impaired growth, low body temperature and abnormal bone formation.
Term
Cushing's Syndrome
Definition
A metabolic disorder caused by overproduction of glucocorticoid by the adrenal cortex and often involving obesity and high blood pressure. It can be caused by a tumor (then is called a disease) or most often, by the clinical administration of pharmacological doses of glucocorticoid drugs.
Term
Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
Definition
Disease caused by deficient insulin release or by insulin resistance, leading to inability of the body cells to use carbohydrates.
Term
Epinephrine
Definition
Chief hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. Also called adrenaline.
Term
Estrogen
Definition
Hormone that stimulates female secondary sex characteristics; female sex hormones.
Term
Glucagon
Definition
Hormone formed by alpa cells of pancreatic islets; raises the glucose level of blood.
Term
Endemic or Simple Goiter
Definition
Caused by a deficiency of iodine in the diet. One sees thyroid enlargement, listlessness, and weight gain. Thyroxine production slows because iodine is not available. In an attempt to increase thyroxine, the thyroid enlarges.
Term
Gonadotropin Hormone (FSH & LH)
Definition
Regulate the function of the gonads (ovaries & testes) & produced by the anterior pituitary. In both sexes, FSH stimulates gamete (sperm or egg) production and LH promotes production of gonadal hormones.
Term
Growth Hormone (GH)
Definition
Hormone that stimulates growth in general and metabolic actions; produced by cells called somatotrophs in anterior pituitary; also called somatotropin (STH); major targets are bones and skeletal muscles; promotes protein synthesis.
Term
Hormone
Definition
Steroidal or amino-acid based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific body functions.
Term
Insulin
Definition
A hormone that enhances the carrier-mediated diffusion of glucose into tissue cells, thus lowering blood glucose levels.
Term
Melatonin
Definition
A hormone secreted by the pineal gland; secretion peaks at night and helps set sleep-wake cycles; also a powerful antioxidant.
Term
Myxedema
Definition
Condition resulting from underactive thyroid gland. Symptoms include a low metabolic rate; felling chilled; constipation; thick, dry skin and puffy eyes; edema; lethargy; and mental sluggishness (but not mental retardation).
Term
Norepinephrine (NE)
Definition
A catecholamine neurotransmitter and adrenal medullary hormone, associated with sympathetic nervous system activation.
Term
Pancreatic islets of Langerhans
Definition
Tiny cell clusters that produce pancreatic hormones. These contain 2 major populations of hormone-producing cells, the glucagon-synthesizing alpha cells and the more numerous insulin-producing beta cells.
Term
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Definition
Protein hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium level. Release is triggered by falling blood Ca 2+ levels and inhibited by rising blood Ca 2+ levels. 3 target organs: the skeleton, the kidneys & the intestine.

Stimulates osteoclasts, enhances reabsorption of Ca 2+ by kidneys & promotes activation of vitamin D, thereby increasing absorption of Ca 2+ from food.
Term
Pineal Gland (body)
Definition
A hormone-secreting part of the diencephalon of the brain through to be involved in setting the biological clock and influencing reproductive function.
Term
Polydipsia
Definition
One of 3 signs of DM. Excessive thirst stimulated by the hypothalamic thirst centers.
Term
Polyphagia
Definition
One of 3 signs of DM. Refers to excessive hunger and food consumption, a sign that the person is "starving in the land of plenty." Although plenty of glucose is available, it cannot be used and the body starts to utilize its fat and protein stores for energy metabolism.
Term
Polyuria
Definition
One of 3 signs of DM. Excessive glucose in the kidney filtrate acts as an osmotic diuretic, resulting in a huge urin output that leads to decreased blood volume and dehydration. Serious electrolyte losses also occur as the body rids itself of excess ketone bodies, which are negatively charged and carry positive ions out with them. As a result, Na+ and K+ are also lost from the body.
Term
Posterior Pituitary (neurohypophysis)
Definition
Portion of the gland derived from the brain; includes the infundibulum.
Term
Progesterone
Definition
Hormone partly responsible for preparing the uterus for the fertilized ovum.
Term
Prolactin (PRL)
Definition
Adenohypophyseal hormone that stimulates the breasts to produce milk.
Term
Prostaglandins
Definition
A lipid-based chemical messenger synthesized by most tissue cells that acts locally as a paracrine.
Term
Renin-Angiotensin Pathway
Definition
1st of 4 mechanisms regulating aldosterone secretion; influences both blood volume and blood pressure by regulating the release of aldosterone and therefore Na+ and water reabsorption by the kidneys. Specialized cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys become excited when blood pressure (or blood volume) declines.; ultimately involved in raising blood pressure.
Term
Testosterone
Definition
Male sex hormone produced by the testes; during puberty promotes virilization, and is necessary for normal sperm production.
Term
Thymosin, Thymulin, Thymoproteins
Definition
families for peptide hormones secreted by Thymic epithelial cells. These hormones are though to be involved in the normal development of T lymphocytes and the immune response, but their roles are not well understood. The mainly act locally as paracrines.
Term
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Definition
Adenohypophyseal hormone that regulates secretion of thyroid hormones.
Term
Thyroxine (T4)
Definition
Iodine-containing hormone secreted by thyroid follicles; stimulates enzymes concerned with glucose oxidation.
Term
TSH
Definition
(Secreted by) Adenohypophysis
Term
Aldosterone
Definition
(Secreted by) Adrenal Gland
Term
Calcitonin
Definition
(Secreted by) Thyroid Gland
Term
ADH
Definition
(Secreted by) Neurohypophysis
Term
Melatonin
Definition
(Secreted by) Pineal Gland
Term
Function of FSH
Definition
Stimulates development of the follicle in the ovaries
Term
Function of ACTH
Definition
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones, most importantly glucocorticoids that help the body to resist stressors.
Term
Function of TSH
Definition
Stimulates the thyroid gland.
Term
Function of GH
Definition
Mobilizes fats, spares glucose, and promotes the protein synthesis necessary for growth.
Term
Function of ADH
Definition
Stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb water from urine; prevents wide swings in water balance, helping the body avoid dehydration and water overload.