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9 Cognitive Strategies
The 9 Cognitive Strategies from ISD 613
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Education
02/22/2010

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Term
Waldoes
Definition
A waldoe is a machine which magnifies strength and increases dexterity. Intellectual waldoes extend the mind = 9 Learning Strategies
Term
Why use the Dick & Carey Model or other model of ISD to create instruction/training?
Definition
A systematic design approach considers what learners already know and evokes an examination of the vast range of activities that will best meet learning needs. Systematic design insures tie-in between various learner needs, the instructional objectives & the range of learning activities. ISD provides a delivery system that is empirical and reproduceable.
Term
Cognition
Definition
creation of knowledge
Term
Name 2 kinds/modes of learning
Definition
assimilation = add to what you already know.
accommodation = more complex rearrangement of knowledge.
Term
Name two ways in which we accomodate new knowledge.
Definition
accretion = new wine in old bottles. routine fact learning.
tuning = minor modification of schema ... sometimes entire schema are re-done.
Term
3 Types of knowledge
Definition
1. declarative = knowledge that, or about.
2. procedural = knowing how. (perform A then B); it is order specific & time dependent.
3. Conditional = knowing when and why to use knowledge.
Term
Ill-structured knowledge domains
Definition
psychology
Term
Highly structured knowledge domains
Definition
math, hard sciences
Term
reciprocal teaching
Definition
teach the content and the strategy. (an intervention tool).
Term
metacognition
Definition
information about information
Term
ISD use of reciprocal teaching
Definition
ISD includes a cognitive strategy in the lesson, i.e., use a chart/frame or chunking.
Term
Name 2 types of Schema/schemata
Definition
process schema = knowledge of how to do something. data/state schema = knowledge of
Term
perception
Definition
wrapping something new into what we already know. We try to find a schema that makes it make sense. This is a cognitive process. We attach meaning to its events.
Term
Functions of schemata
Definition
directs perception; makes learning and comprehension possible; aids recall.
Term
Schemata as scaffolding
Definition
schemata can serve to scaffold learning through: inferential elaboration; orderly memory search; aids editing, abstracting & summarizing; permits inferential reconstruction
Term
Name a perfect schemata
Definition
There is NO ONE perfect schemata.
Term
Why does ISD use reciprocal teaching?
Definition
ISD places an emphasis on teaching a strategy along with content because the objectives focused style of ISD training provides ample opportunity to do so. Metacognition skills & reciprocal learning are tools the IDer can use to promote learning.
Term
Metacognition & Reciprocal Teaching:
Definition
these are tools for the IDer. teaching a strategy along with the content. It can be as simple as using an outline to present content.
Term
strategy learning
Definition
strategy learning improves content learning. Summarizing, questioning, clarifying & predicting are tools to be used.
Term
Name the 4 Families of Cognitive strategies
Definition
Spatial, Bridging, Chunking, Multipurpose.
Term
Examples of spatial strategies
Definition
Frames type 1; Frames type 2; concept mapping.
Term
Examples of bridging strategies
Definition
Advance organizer, metaphor, Frames type 2.
Term
Examples of multipurpose strategies:
Definition
general purpose, rehearsal, imagery, mneumonics
Term
Examples of chunking strategies:
Definition
Topologies; typologies; groups
Term
Characteristics of Chunking strategies
Definition
comprise a large assortment of organizing strategies. Chunking enables the rational ordering, classifying or arrangement of complex arrays. Aids intellectual managment of large and/or complex amounts of data. Chunking is preparatory. Rehearsal or other strategies are required for further processing.
Term
Examples of chunking strategies
Definition
outlines, grouping, clustering, maps =chain maps; timelines; space orientation; procedures/steps; simlarities; cause/effect; pro/con; form/function; taxonomy/typology
Term
Using chunking in design strategies
Definition
In design the appropriate chunking strategy, suitable to the knowledge domain should be made apparent. Chunking is ubiquitous to knowledge domains & we are not aware of it; IDers need to make primary chunking obvious.
Term
9 cognitive strategies
Definition
Frames 1; Frames 2; chunking; advance organizer; concept mapping; metaphor/simile; mneumonic; imagery; rehearsal. These strategies are the primary contributions of cognitive science to ID.
Term
Cognition
Definition
coming to know thru perception, comprehension, thinking, memory and attention.
Term
Cognitive theorists focus on:
Definition
internal processes that are impossible to observe. Tichner, Piaget, Bruner, Bandura.
Term
Learning is a mental activity that is
Definition
an internal structuring of knowledge.
Term
What are the Instructional Domains?
Definition
Cognitive, affective, psychomoter. These refer to whether instruction is intended to bring about changes in thinking, attitude, and/or performance skills.
Term
Characteristics of Frames type 1
Definition
spatial; provides a big picture; it is a grid, matrix, or framework for representing knowledge; intends to show organization; includes LABELS of main ideas in rows & columns. Use a frame 1 in Intro, within lesson, & at end/review.
Term
Example of Frame 1
Definition
Dr. Cohen used Frame type 1 to teach romantic drama structure. This type of frame can aid group discussion.
Term
Characteristics of Frame type 2
Definition
Looks like type 1 on surface. Slot completion is driven by a law-like principle or statement. The principle is used to logically elicit from personal memory, the knowledge that is to be placed in the grids or visual array.
Term
Frames type 2 use with students
Definition
Students must be able to grasp (intellectually) the logical operation that drives the frame. Often TINKERING is required when using Frames 2. Concreteness varies; think broadly.
Term
Problems with FRames 2
Definition
teachers try to over structure ill-structured knowledge; teachers fear that students will supply the wrong info; solution: teach materials THEN use Frame 2 to elicit performance; it is hard to figure out the structure of some Knowledge Domains.
Term
Characteristics of Concept Mapping
Definition
Spatial. Concept mapping is a way of graphically displaying concepts and relationships between or among concepts; concepts are placed in a visual array. Displays concepts & relationships.
Term
To create Concept Maps
Definition
extract broad concepts then map the relationships. Use legends to name relationships.
Term
Concept mapping and remembering.
Definition
Concept mapping is better for remembering than outlining.
Term
Characteristics of Concept mapping
Definition
Can be hiearchical & linear. They are similar to outlinin, but all outlines are hierarchical, only 1 type of concept map is hierarchical. Concept maps are coded both verbally & imaginally.
Term
The nature of concepts is
Definition
A name for objects (events, things) together with its meaning.
Term
Can procedural knowledge be used with concept mapping?
Definition
yes, but procedural knowledge is restricted to chain maps when using concept mapping.
Term
Advance Organizers created by?
Definition
Ausubel (1968). It is a bridging strategy.
Term
Characteristics of AOs
Definition
They are not likely to be created by students; AOs are restricted to helping students learn. They come before a lesson section (intro); is based on students' prior knowledge; brief & abstract; a bridge linking new info w/old. It is a restatement of prior knowledge; it provides students w/a structure of the new info.
Term
What kind of material is used with AOs?
Definition
Uses Verbal Material to teach declarative, procedural, and conditional learning.
Term
Who invented the Advance Organizer?
Definition
David Ausubel in 1960. Cognitivist. Subsumption theory= during meaningful learning the person organizes or subsumes or incorporates the new knowledge into the old.
Term
What are some variables that affect effectiveness of AOs?
Definition
The learner, attributes of the text; It is a bridging strategy.
Term
To create an Advance Organizer
Definition
examine new lesson for prerequisite knowledge; ask if student knows prereqs; reteach if necessary; List/summarize major ideas of new lesson; Write para emphasizing major general principles, similarities of old & new. MAIN topics/subjects MUST BE covered in same sequence as in the AO.
Term
Characteristics of Mnemonics
Definition
they have an extended history re: memorization of literature in pre-literate society. Storytellers used mneumonics. Called artificial memory.
Term
Name 4 types of mneumonics
Definition
Single use/first letter
Keyword
Chain = 30 days has Sept....
Method of loci = place items in familiar places and tour the place to remember.
Term
How to use mneumonics
Definition
Useful for low structure.
Term
Characteristics of Imagery
Definition
Multipurpose; works best w/concrete info; useful for declarative, procedural & conditional knowledge; not restricted to verbal knowledge; encoding is both verbal & imaginable.
Term
When using imagery
Definition
at first students should be prompted, to form a mental picture; teachers should model the use of imagery and share their own.
Term
Metaphor/simile
Definition
This is a bridging strategy. They can carry meaning of some material as well as literal language; metaphor is a cognitive strategy shared across age.
Term
When using metaphors
Definition
select the metaphor; emphasize the metaphor; insure context is established; provide imagery instruction; emphasize similarities; provide opportunities for rehearsal of similarities
Term
Characteristics of Rehearsal
Definition
General purpose strategy.
Term
Examples of rehearsal srategies
Definition
repetition & cumulative rehearsal; questioning & answering; predicting & clarifying; selecting; notetaking; underlining; SQ3R=survey,question,read,recite,review.